Energy - EPPA

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Alert-warning.png Note: The documentation of EPPA is 'in preparation' and is not yet 'published'!

Model Documentation - EPPA

Corresponding documentation
Previous versions
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Model information
Model link
Institution Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), USA,
Solution concept General equilibrium (closed economy)
Solution method Optimization

In standard EPPA, it considers various types of primary energy, including 1) coal, 2) crude oil, 3) gas, 4) nuclear, 5) hydro, 6) wind, 7) solar, and 8) bio-energy. Per the crude oil, it is further converted into the refined oil, which is then consumed by intermediate and final use. On the other hand, the bio-energy considered in EPPA includes the first-generation biofuels, which are made from different types of food crops, and the second-generation cellulosic biofuels derived from non-food crops and waste biomass (EPA, 2022).[1]

There are also project-specific versions of the model that were developed to offer more options of energy sources (e.g., hydrogen (Sandoval et al., 2009)[2]), or higher resolution on energy types (e.g., separating crude oil into conventional crude and tar sand (Chan et al., 2012),[3] and disaggregating refined oil into gasoline and diesel (Choumert et al., 2006),[4] Ramberg and Chen (2015)[5]). More details about the energy reserves and flows will be provided later.

  1. EPA (2022). Economics of Biofuels. The US Environmental Protection Agency.,ethanol%2C%20butanol%2C%20and%20propanol. (Accessed on August 8, 2022)
  2. Sandoval, R., V. Karplus, S. Paltsev and J. Reilly (2009): Modeling prospects for hydrogen powered transportation through 2100. Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, 43(3): 291-316 (
  3. Chan, G., J.M. Reilly, S. Paltsev, Y.-H.H. Chen (2012): The Canadian oil sands industry under carbon constraints. Energy Policy, 50: 540-550 (
  4. Choumert, F., S. Paltsev and J. Reilly (2006): Improving the Refining Sector in EPPA. Joint Program Technical Note TN #9, 56 pgs (
  5. Ramberg, D.J. and Y.-H.H. Chen (2015): Updates to disaggregating the refined oil sector in EPPA: EPPA6-ROIL. Joint Program Technical Note TN #15, December, 33 p. (