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AIM-Enduse IndiaAIM-Enduse JapanAIM-HubAIM-Hub IndonesiaAIM-Hub KoreaAIM-Hub ThailandAIM-Hub Viet NamBETBLUESC3IAMCOFFEE-TEAChina TIMESDNE21+E3ME-FTTEPPAGCAMGCAM-KAISTGEM-E3GRACEICESIFsIMACLIMIMACLIM-IndiaIMACLIM-NLUIMAGEIPAC-AIM technologyIPAC-GlobalIPETSMARKAL-IndiaMEDEASMESSAGE KoreaMESSAGE-GLOBIOMMUSEPOLESPROMETHEUSREMIND-MAgPIETIAM-ECNTIAM-UCLWITCH
About-Documentation AIM-Enduse India documentation consists of a referencecard and detailed model documentation AIM-Enduse Japan documentation is limited and consists of a reference card AIM-Hub documentation consists of a referencecard and detailed model documentation AIM-Hub Indonesia documentation is limited and consists of a reference card AIM-Hub Korea documentation consists of a referencecard and detailed model documentation AIM-Hub Thailand documentation is limited and consists of a reference card AIM-Hub Viet Nam documentation is limited and consists of a reference card BET documentation is limited and consists of a reference card BLUES documentation consists of a referencecard and detailed model documentation C3IAM documentation consists of a referencecard and detailed model documentation COFFEE-TEA documentation consists of a referencecard and detailed model documentation China TIMES documentation is limited and consists of a reference card DNE21+ documentation consists of a referencecard and detailed model documentation E3ME-FTT documentation consists of a referencecard and detailed model documentation EPPA documentation consists of a referencecard and detailed model documentation GCAM documentation consists of a referencecard and detailed model documentation GCAM-KAIST documentation is limited and consists of a reference card GEM-E3 documentation consists of a referencecard and detailed model documentation GRACE documentation consists of a referencecard and detailed model documentation ICES documentation consists of a referencecard and detailed model documentation IFs documentation consists of a referencecard and detailed model documentation IMACLIM documentation consists of a referencecard and detailed model documentation IMACLIM-India documentation is limited and consists of a reference card IMACLIM-NLU documentation is limited and consists of a reference card IMAGE documentation consists of a referencecard and detailed model documentation IPAC-AIM technology documentation consists of a referencecard and detailed model documentation IPAC-Global documentation consists of a referencecard and detailed model documentation IPETS documentation is limited and consists of a reference card MARKAL-India documentation consists of a referencecard and detailed model documentation MEDEAS documentation is limited and consists of a reference card MESSAGE Korea documentation is limited and consists of a reference card MESSAGE-GLOBIOM documentation consists of a referencecard and detailed model documentation MUSE documentation consists of a referencecard and detailed model documentation POLES documentation consists of a referencecard and detailed model documentation PROMETHEUS documentation consists of a referencecard and detailed model documentation REMIND-MAgPIE documentation consists of a referencecard and detailed model documentation TIAM-ECN documentation consists of a referencecard and detailed model documentation TIAM-UCL documentation consists of a referencecard and detailed model documentation WITCH documentation consists of a referencecard and detailed model documentation
About-Institution Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad (IIMA), India, https://www.iima.ac.in/. Kyoto University (KU), Japan, https://www.kyoto-u.ac.jp/en/., National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), Japan, . National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), Japan, https://www.nies.go.jp/index-e.html., Kyoto-University (Kyoto-University), Japan, https://www.kyoto-u.ac.jp/en. Center for Research on Energy Policy Institut Teknologi Bandung (CREP ITB), Indonesia, https://www.crep.itb.ac.id/. University of Seoul (UOS), South-Korea, www.uos.ac.kr. Sirindhorn International Institute of Technology, Thammasat University (SIIT-TU), Thailand, https://www.siit.tu.ac.th/. Vietnam National University Ho Chi Minh City (HCMIU), Viet Nam, https://ev.hcmiu.edu.vn/en/home/. Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), Japan, https://criepi.denken.or.jp/en/. COPPE/UFRJ (Cenergia), Brazil, http://www.cenergialab.coppe.ufrj.br/. Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research, Beijing Institute of Technology (CEEP-BIT), China, http://ceep.bit.edu.cn/english/. COPPE/UFRJ (Cenergia), Brazil, http://www.cenergialab.coppe.ufrj.br/. Tsinghua University (Tsinghua University), China, https://www.tsinghua.edu.cn/en/. Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth (RITE), Japan, http://www.rite.or.jp/en/. Global System Institute, University of Exeter (UNEXE), United Kingdom, https://www.exeter.ac.uk/gsi/., School of Environment, Earth and Ecosystems Sciences, The Open University (OU), United Kingdom, http://www.open.ac.uk/science/environment-earth-ecosystems/., Cambridge Econometrics (CE), United Kingdom, https://www.camecon.com/. Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), USA, https://globalchange.mit.edu/. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Joint Global Change Research Institute (PNNL, JGCRI), USA, http://www.globalchange.umd.edu. Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), South-Korea, https://www.kaist.ac.kr/en/. Institute of Communication And Computer Systems (ICCS), Greece, https://www.iccs.gr/en/. Center for International Climate Research (CICERO), Norway, https://cicero.oslo.no/en. Euro-Mediterranean Center on Climate Change (CMCC), Italy, https://www.cmcc.it/. Frederick S. Pardee Center for International Futures, University of Denver (Pardee Center), Colorado, USA, https://pardee.du.edu/. Centre international de recherche sur l'environnement et le développement (CIRED), France, http://www.centre-cired.fr., Societe de Mathematiques Appliquees et de Sciences Humaines (SMASH), France, http://www.smash.fr. Indian Institute of Management Lucknow (IIML), India, www.iiml.ac.in., Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad (IIMA), India, www.iima.ac.in. Centre international de recherche sur l'environnement et le développement (CIRED), France, http://www.centre-cired.fr., Societe de Mathematiques Appliquees et de Sciences Humaines (SMASH), France, http://www.smash.fr. Utrecht University (UU), Netherlands, https://www.uu.nl/en., PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL), Netherlands, https://www.pbl.nl/en. Energy Research Institute (ERI), China, http://en.cctp.org.cn/m5/product/35982.html. Energy Research Institute (ERI), China, http://en.cctp.org.cn/m5/product/35982.html. National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), USA, https://ncar.ucar.edu/. The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI), India, www.teriin.org. Group of Energy, Economy and Systems Dynamics, University of Valladolid (GEEDS-UVa), Spain, https://geeds.es/en/. Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), South-Korea, https://www.kaist.ac.kr/en/. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Austria, http://data.ene.iiasa.ac.at. Imperial College London (Imperial College London), UK, https://www.imperial.ac.uk/. JRC - Joint Research Centre - European Commission (EC-JRC), Belgium, http://ec.europa.eu/jrc/en/. E3Modelling (E3M), Greece, https://e3modelling.com/modelling-tools. Potsdam Institut für Klimafolgenforschung (PIK), Germany, https://www.pik-potsdam.de. The Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research (TNO), The Netherlands, https://www.tno.nl/en/. University College London (UCL), UK, https://www.ucl.ac.uk. European Institute on Economics and the Environment (RFF-CMCC EIEE), Italy, http://www.eiee.org.
About-Model link http://www.nies.go.jp/media_kit/16.AIM/Enduse.html; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2021.120464 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2014.09.010; http://www.nies.go.jp/media_kit/16.AIM/Enduse/manual.html; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2021.120464 https://www-iam.nies.go.jp/aim/about_us/index.html https://www-iam.nies.go.jp/aim/ https://www-iam.nies.go.jp/aim/ https://www-iam.nies.go.jp/aim/ https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-020-02839-7 https://www.nature.com/articles/s41558-018-0213-y http://inems1.bit.edu.cn/C3IAM; https://ideas.repec.org/a/spr/nathaz/v92y2018i2d10.1007_s11069-018-3297-9.html; https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-020-15453-z https://github.com/etsap-TIMES/TIMES_model; https://static-content.springer.com/esm/art%3A10.1038%2Fs41467-020-15414-6/MediaObjects/41467_2020_15414_MOESM1_ESM.pdf https://www.rite.or.jp/system/en/global-warming-ouyou/modeltodata/overviewdne21/ https://www.e3me.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/E3ME-Technical-Manual-v6.1-onlineSML.pdf https://globalchange.mit.edu/research/research-tools/eppa http://www.globalchange.umd.edu/gcam/; http://jgcri.github.io/gcam-doc/toc.html; https://github.com/JGCRI/gcam-core http://kaistceps.quv.kr/ https://ec.europa.eu/clima/sites/clima/files/strategies/analysis/models/docs/gem_e3_long_en.pdf https://sites.google.com/view/taoyuanwei/home/grace https://www.icesmodel.org/ https://pardee.du.edu/access-ifs http://dina.centre-cired.fr/IMACLIM/Description-des-modeles-IMACLIM/?lang=en; https://github.com/GaelleLeTreut/IMACLIM-Country/tree/V1.1; https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02949396/document http://dina.centre-cired.fr/IMACLIM/Description-des-modeles-IMACLIM/?lang=en http://www2.centre-cired.fr/IMACLIM/ https://models.pbl.nl/image http://www.ipac-model.org.cn/About%20IPAC%20Model.html http://www.ipac-model.org.cn/About%20IPAC%20Model.html https://www2.cgd.ucar.edu/sections/tss/iam/iam-modeling https://www.medeas.eu/model/medeas-model https://docs.messageix.org; http://data.ene.iiasa.ac.at/message-globiom/; https://github.com/iiasa/message_ix; https://github.com/iiasa/ixmp http://paris-reinforce.epu.ntua.gr/detailed_model_doc/muse http://ec.europa.eu/jrc/en/poles; https://ec.europa.eu/jrc/en/publication/poles-jrc-model-documentation-0 https://e3modelling.com/modelling-tools/prometheus/ https://www.pik-potsdam.de/research/sustainable-solutions/models/remind; https://rse.pik-potsdam.de/doc/remind/2.1.3; https://github.com/remindmodel/remind/releases/tag/v2.1.3; https://github.com/magpiemodel/magpie/releases/tag/v4.2.1; https://rse.pik-potsdam.de/doc/magpie/4.2.1/ http://www.transrisk-project.eu/virtual-library/transrisk-models/ecn-%E2%80%93-tiam; https://iea-etsap.org/index.php/documentation https://www.ucl.ac.uk/energy-models/models/tiam-ucl https://www.witchmodel.org/; https://github.com/witch-team/witchmodel; https://doc.witchmodel.org
About-Name and version AIM/Enduse India 1.0 AIM-Enduse Japan V2.1 AIM-Hub V2.2 AIM-Hub Indonesia 1.0 AIM-Hub/Korea 1.0 AIM-Hub Thailand 1.0 AIM/Hub Viet Nam 1.0 BET-GLUE 1.6-3.2 BLUES 1.0 C3IAM 2.0 COFFEE-TEA v1 China TIMES 1.0 DNE21+ x E3ME-FTT-GENIE 6.2 EPPA 6 GCAM 5.3 GCAM-KAIST 1.0 GEM-E3 _092019 GRACE 2018 ICES 1.0 IFs International Futures 7.36 IMACLIM- R 1.0 IMACLIM-India 1.0 IMACLIM-NLU 1.0 IMAGE framework 3.0 IPAC-AIM/technology 1.0 IPAC-Global 1.0 IPETS 2.0 MARKAL-India 1.0 MEDEAS 1.0 MESSAGE-Korea 1.0 MESSAGE-GLOBIOM 1.0 MUSE 1.0 POLES ENGAGE (other versions are in use in other applications) PROMETHEUS 1.0 REMIND-MAgPIE 2.0-4.1 TIAM-ECN 1.1 TIAM-UCL 1.0 WITCH 5.0
About-Process state in preparation published published in preparation in preparation published published published published published published published published submitted in preparation in preparation in preparation published under review in preparation under review published in preparation published published in preparation in preparation published in preparation in preparation published published in preparation published under review published in preparation published published
Model scope and methods-Anticipation GCAM is a dynamic recursive model, meaning that decision-makers do not know the future when making a decision today. After it solves each period, the model then uses the resulting state of the world, including the consequences of decisions made in that period - such as resource depletion, capital stock retirements and installations, and changes to the landscape - and then moves to the next time step and performs the same exercise. For long-lived investments, decision-makers may account for future profit streams, but those estimates would be based on current prices. For some parts of the model, economic agents use prior experience to form expectations based on multi-period experiences. Myopic Recursive dynamics: each year the equilibrium is solved (system of non-linear equations), in between two years parameters to the equilibrium evolve according to specified functions. Recursive dynamics: each year the equilibrium is solved (system of non-linear equations), in between two years parameters to the equilibrium evolve according to specified functions. Simulation modelling framework, without foresight. However, a simplified version of the energy/climate part of the model (called FAIR) can be run prior to running the framework to obtain data for climate policy simulations. Forward looking Myopic Energy system simulation.Foresight is included only is some sub-modules (i.e. electricity generation) Perfect or myopic foresight Perfect Foresight (Stochastic and myopic runs are also possible)
Model scope and methods-Geographical scope Regional Global Regional Regional Regional Global Regional Global Global Regional Global Global Global Global Global Global Global Regional Global Global Regional Global Regional Global Regional Global Global Global Global Global Global Global Global
Model scope and methods-Model type Energy system model Energy system model CGE CGE CGE CGE Integrated assessment model Integrated assessment model Integrated assessment model Integrated assessment model Energy system model Integrated assessment model Integrated assessment model Integrated assessment model CGE CGE CGE CGE CGE CGE Integrated assessment model Energy system model Integrated assessment model Energy system model Integrated assessment model Energy system model CGE Energy system model Integrated assessment model Energy system model CGE Integrated assessment model Energy system model CGE
Model scope and methods-Objective National To understand, economy, energy and land-use interaction particularly related to climate policy Assess pathway of long term strategy for decarbonization to achieve net-zero emissions in Asian Countries The Asia-Pacific Integrated Assessment Model-Hub Thailand (AIM-Hub Thailand) is developed by NIES, Kyoto University, and SIIT-TU to assess the climate mitigation scenarios in Thailand. This model is based on the AIM-Hub, a recursive dynamic computable general equilibrium (CGE) model, formerly known as the AIM/CGE model. The model covers all the economic sectors along with the set of GHGs and air pollutants. A detailed disaggregation of the energy sectors is provided including the electricity generation sector. Agricultural sectors are disaggregated to assess bioenergy and land-use activities. The AIM-Hub_Vietnam is developed, based on Asia-Pacific Integrated Modeling/Computable General Equilibrium (AIM/CGE) model which is renamed as AIM-Hub, to analyze the climate change mitigation and its impact. To meet this objective, the energy system is disaggregated into energy supply and demand sides. Agricultural sectors are also disaggregated for appropriate land-use treatment. The model is designed to have the flexibility to be used at a global and individual country scale with some relevant adjustments for Vietnam. BET-GLUE comprises an energy-economic module (BET) and a bioenergy-land-use module (GLUE).

BET is a multi-regional, inter-temporal general equilibrium model with a detailed energy system and an aggregated representation of macroeconomy that follows an optimal economic growth theory. The model explicitly handles energy service demand and end-use technologies in a global macroeconomic framework. This structure allows a systematic approach to examine trade-offs between advanced energy supply technologies and end-use efficiencies from a long-term global perspective across different mitigation policies and technologies.

GLUE is a multi-regional, global land-use and energy model, which solves the system of land-use and biomass flow balance by recursive dynamics under a set of conditions including food and wood demand. Currently, GLUE is soft-linked with BET to provide biomass feedstock potentials.
assessing the impacts of climate policies in the future development of a complex and dynamic system The models were developed at COPPE/UFRJ, Brazil, for assessing climate, land, energy and environmental policies, providing relevant information to experts and decision-makers about the possible development strategies and repercussions of long term climate scenarios. China TIMES incorporates the whole energy system and water module, including energy supply, energy conversion and transmission, end-use demand sectors, water supply and water utilization. Five demand sectors, agriculture, industry, commercial, residential (divided into urban and rural) and transportation, are considered and further divided into 43 sub-sectors in China TIMES. The modelling using China TIMES determines the least-cost mix of technologies and fuels to meet the projected energy service demands for the 43 sectors for a given social economic development scenario. E3ME is a macro-econometric model designed to assess global policy challenges. It is widely used for policy assessment, forecasting and research purposes. Projecting Economy, Energy, and Climate Impacts GCAM is an integrated, multi-sector model that explores both human and Earth system dynamics. The role of models like GCAM is to bring multiple human and physical Earth systems together in one place to shed light on system interactions and provide scientific insights that would not otherwise be available from the pursuit of traditional disciplinary scientific research alone. GCAM is constructed to explore these interactions in a single computational platform with a sufficiently low computational requirement to allow for broad explorations of scenarios and uncertainties. Components of GCAM are designed to capture the behavior of human and physical systems, but they do not necessarily include the most detailed process-scale representations of its constituent components. On the other hand, model components in principle provide a faithful representation of the best current scientific understanding of underlying behavior. The GEM-E3 model is a multi-regional, multi-sectoral, recursive dynamic hybrid computable general equilibrium (CGE) model which provides details on the macro-economy and its interaction with the environment and the energy system. It incorporates micro-economic mechanisms and institutional features within a consistent macro-economic framework. The model aims primarily to estimating how economic indicators defined in the national accounts interact with climate-related factors. for example, climate policies are represented by e.g. quotas or taxes on emissions, to show the economic consequences in world regions under projections. ICES is a recursive dynamic multi-region and multi-sector Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model used to assess impacts of climate change on the economic system and to study mitigation and adaptation policies. Imaclim-R is intended to study the interactions between energy systems and the economy, to assess the feasibility of low carbon development strategies and the transition pathway towards low carbon future. Economy-wide model Imaclim-NLU is intended to study the interactions between energy systems and the economy, to assess the feasibility of low carbon development strategies and the transition pathway towards low carbon future. IMAGE is an ecological-environmental model framework that simulates the environmental consequences of human activities worldwide. The objective of the IMAGE model is to explore the long- term dynamics and impacts of global changes that result. More specifically, the model aims
  1. to analyse interactions between human development and the natural environment to gain better insight into the processes of global environmental change;
  2. to identify response strategies to global environmental change based on assessment of options and
  3. to indicate key inter-linkages and associated levels of uncertainty in processes of global environmental change.
The IPAC-AIM/technology model was developed based on AIM/end use model, which is part of the Asian-Pacific Integrated Model (AIM), which was developed by the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) and Kyoto University. It is a bottom-up, energy-technology model. Based on detailed descriptions of energy services and technologies, it calculates the total energy consumption and production in a bottom-up manner. This model has been used to analyze several key countries in the Asian region including China, India, Indonesia, and Japan etc. The AIM/end-use models for key Asian developing countries have been constructed, and the results of analyses using this model have been reported (Jiang et al., 1998; Hu et al., 1996). Among the advantages of bottom-up models, the most important is that their results can be interpreted clearly because they are based on detailed descriptions of changes in human activities and technologies. IPAC-Global model is an extended version of the AIM-Linkage model used in IPCC Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES). This model links the social and economy development, energy activities and land use activities, and forms a full range of emission analysis. IPAC includes mainly four parts: (1) society, economy and energy activities module, which mainly analyzes the demand and supply in the condition of social and economic development, and determines the energy prices; (2) energy technology module, which analyzes the short and mid-term energy utilization technologies under different conditions, and determines the energy demand under different technology compositions. The energy demand in energy technology module will modify the short and mid-term energy demand in society, economy and energy activities module, which makes the energy analysis in macro-economic model better reflect the short and mid-term energy activities; (3) land use module, which analyzes the emissions from land use process. This mainly includes emissions from agricultural food supplies, stock raising, forest management and biomass energy production; (4) industrial process emission module, which mainly analyzes the emissions from all kinds of industrial productions. The society, economy and energy activities module is built based on ERB model developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in US. Energy technology module is the IPAC-AIM/technology module developed collaboratively by Climate Change Strategies Assessment Research Team in ERI and National Institute of Environmental Studies in Japan. Land use module is modified and extended based on the AGLU model developed by PNNL. The iPETS model is developed to analyze greenhouse gas mitigation and climate change impacts with a special emphasis on the implications of demographic heterogeneity. The model was initially developed to represent the energy related emissions at national level and examine alternative options that could mitigate CO2 emissions, while keeping in mind the national development priorities. The basic model has been widely used in conjunction with other macroeconomic and biophysical models to examine trade-offs and co-benefits of alternative energy sector trajectories. The main objective of the MEDEAS model is to help in making political decisions for an energy transition towards a low carbon society. In addition, the MEDEAS model seeks to be a useful tool to help understand the causal relationships and feedback between economic, biophysical and social variables that are linked to climate change. MESSAGE at its core is a technology-detailed energy-engineering optimization model used for energy planning. Through linkage to macro-economic, land-use and climate models it is capable of taking into account important feedbacks and limitations in these areas outside of the energy system. MUSE is an agent-based energy systems model which simulates the decision-making process of firms and consumers in the energy system. It aims at capturing the multi-faceted aspects of the energy systems transitions in a realistic way as they would be affected by limited knowledge of the future and the technology readiness adopting a bottom-up approach to the technology description. POLES was originally developed to assess energy markets, combining a detailed description of energy demand, transformation and primary supply for all energy vectors.

It provides full energy balances on a yearly basis using frequent data updates to as to deliver robust forecasts for both short and long-term horizons. It has quickly been used, in the late 90s, to assess energy-related CO2 mitigation policies.

Over time other GHG emissions have been included (energy and industry non-CO2 from the early 2000s), and linkages with agricultural and land use models have been progressively implemented.
PROMETHEUS is a global energy system model covering in detail the complex interactions between energy demand, supply and energy prices at the regional and global level. Its main objectives are:

1) Assess climate change mitigation pathways and low-emission development strategies for the medium and long-term 2) Analyse the energy system, economic and emission implications of a wide spectrum of energy and climate policy measures, differentiated by region and sector)

3) Explore the economics of fossil fuel production and quantify the impacts of climate policies on the evolution of global energy prices
REMIND-MAgPIE is a global multi-regional model incorporating the economy,

the climate system and a detailed representation of the energy sector. REMIND-MAgPIE allows for a sophisticated analysis of technology options and

policy proposals for climate mitigation. It accounts for economic and energy investments in the model regions, and interregional trade in goods, energy carriers and emissions allowances.
TIAM-ECN is a linear programming integrated assessment model based on TIAM, a global cost-optimization model developed under the TIMES model generator framework. It minimizes discounted global energy system’s cost based on a partial equilibrium that supplies end-use service demands subject to a diverse set of previously defined constraints. Energy flows and energy conversion technologies are linked from resource level to final use, hence all main economic sectors are covered and characterized, allowing direct links to economy and environment. TIAM-UCL (TIMES Integrated Assessment Model) uses the TIMES modelling platform, which

is a successor of the MARKAL platform. The markal/times modelling concept was originally intended to analyse energy systems at a regional or global level and has evolved to also describe greenhouse gas emissions. Scenario based simulations maximize the total discounted sum of consumer and supplier

surplus over the model horizon, while taking into account the constraints (e.g. energy demand to be fulfilled, availability of energy resources etc).
WITCH evaluates the impacts of climate policies on global and regional economic systems and provides information on the optimal responses of these economies to climate change. The model considers the positive externalities from leaning-by-doing and learning-by-researching in the technological change.
Model scope and methods-Policies Emission tax;Emission pricing;Cap and trade;Fuel taxes;Fuel subsidies;Feed-in-tariff;Portfolio standard;Capacity targets;Emission standards;Energy efficiency standards;Agricultural producer subsidies;Agricultural consumer subsidies;Land protection;Pricing carbon stocks Emission tax;Fuel taxes;Fuel subsidies;Portfolio standard;Capacity targets;Emission standards;Energy efficiency standards Emission tax;Emission pricing;Cap and trade;Fuel taxes;Fuel subsidies;Portfolio standard;Capacity targets;Emission standards;Energy efficiency standards;Agricultural producer subsidies;Agricultural consumer subsidies;Land protection;Pricing carbon stocks Emission tax;Emission pricing;Cap and trade;Fuel taxes;Fuel subsidies;Feed-in-tariff;Emission standards;Energy efficiency standards;Agricultural producer subsidies;Agricultural consumer subsidies;Land protection;Pricing carbon stocks (Phase out regulations) Emission tax;Fuel taxes;Energy efficiency standards Emission tax;Fuel taxes Emission tax;Emission pricing;Cap and trade Emission tax;Emission pricing;Fuel taxes;Fuel subsidies;Feed-in-tariff;Portfolio standard;Capacity targets;Emission standards;Energy efficiency standards;Land protection;Pricing carbon stocks Emission tax;Emission pricing;Cap and trade;Fuel taxes;Fuel subsidies;Agricultural producer subsidies;Agricultural consumer subsidies;Feed-in-tariff Emission tax;Emission pricing;Fuel taxes;Feed-in-tariff;Portfolio standard;Capacity targets;Emission standards;Energy efficiency standards;Land protection;Pricing carbon stocks Emission pricing;Capacity targets;Emission standards;Energy efficiency standards;Pricing carbon stocks Emission tax;Emission pricing;Fuel taxes;Fuel subsidies;Feed-in-tariff;Capacity targets;Energy efficiency standards;Cap and trade;Portfolio standard;Emission standards (Phase out regulations) Emission tax;Emission pricing;Cap and trade;Fuel taxes;Fuel subsidies;Feed-in-tariff;Portfolio standard;Capacity targets;Emission standards;Energy efficiency standards;Agricultural producer subsidies;Agricultural consumer subsidies;Land protection;Pricing carbon stocks Emission tax;Emission pricing;Cap and trade;Fuel taxes;Fuel subsidies;Feed-in-tariff;Portfolio standard;Capacity targets;Emission standards;Energy efficiency standards;Agricultural producer subsidies;Agricultural consumer subsidies;Land protection;Pricing carbon stocks Emission tax;Emission pricing;Cap and trade;Fuel taxes;Fuel subsidies;Feed-in-tariff;Portfolio standard;Capacity targets Emission tax;Emission pricing;Cap and trade;Fuel taxes;Fuel subsidies;Feed-in-tariff;Capacity targets;Emission standards;Energy efficiency standards;Agricultural producer subsidies;Agricultural consumer subsidies (Adaptation, climate change impact) Emission tax;Emission pricing;Cap and trade;Fuel taxes;Fuel subsidies Emission tax;Emission pricing;Cap and trade;Fuel taxes;Fuel subsidies;Capacity targets;Emission standards;Energy efficiency standards Emission tax;Emission pricing;Fuel taxes;Fuel subsidies;Capacity targets;Energy efficiency standards Emission tax;Emission pricing;Cap and trade;Fuel taxes;Fuel subsidies;Capacity targets;Emission standards;Energy efficiency standards Emission tax;Emission pricing;Cap and trade;Fuel taxes;Portfolio standard;Capacity targets;Emission standards;Energy efficiency standards;Land protection;Pricing carbon stocks Emission tax;Cap and trade;Fuel taxes;Fuel subsidies;Feed-in-tariff;Capacity targets;Emission standards;Energy efficiency standards;Pricing carbon stocks Emission tax;Emission pricing;Cap and trade;Fuel taxes;Fuel subsidies;Portfolio standard;Capacity targets;Emission standards;Energy efficiency standards;Agricultural producer subsidies;Agricultural consumer subsidies;Land protection Emission tax;Emission pricing;Fuel taxes;Fuel subsidies;Portfolio standard;Capacity targets;Emission standards;Energy efficiency standards Emission tax;Cap and trade;Fuel taxes;Fuel subsidies;Portfolio standard;Capacity targets Emission tax;Emission pricing;Cap and trade;Portfolio standard;Capacity targets;Emission standards;Energy efficiency standards Emission tax;Emission pricing;Capacity targets;Emission standards;Energy efficiency standards Emission tax;Emission pricing;Cap and trade;Fuel taxes;Fuel subsidies;Feed-in-tariff;Capacity targets;Emission standards;Energy efficiency standards;Pricing carbon stocks Emission tax;Emission pricing;Cap and trade;Fuel taxes;Fuel subsidies;Feed-in-tariff;Portfolio standard;Capacity targets;Emission standards;Energy efficiency standards Emission tax;Emission pricing;Cap and trade;Fuel taxes;Fuel subsidies;Portfolio standard;Capacity targets;Land protection;Pricing carbon stocks Emission tax;Emission pricing;Cap and trade;Fuel taxes;Fuel subsidies;Capacity targets Emission tax;Emission pricing;Cap and trade;Fuel taxes;Capacity targets Emission tax;Emission pricing;Cap and trade;Fuel taxes;Fuel subsidies;Capacity targets;Emission standards
Model scope and methods-Solution concept Partial equilibrium (fixed demand) Partial equilibrium (fixed demand) General equilibrium (closed economy) General equilibrium (closed economy) General equilibrium (closed economy) General equilibrium (closed economy) General equilibrium (closed economy) General equilibrium (closed economy) General equilibrium (closed economy) General equilibrium (closed economy) Partial equilibrium (price elastic demand) Econometric General equilibrium (closed economy) General equilibrium (closed economy) (GCAM solves all energy, water, and land markets simultaneously) General equilibrium (closed economy) General equilibrium (closed economy) General equilibrium (closed economy) (General Equilibirum (open economy)) General equilibrium (closed economy) General equilibrium (closed economy) General equilibrium (closed economy) Partial equilibrium (price elastic demand) Partial equilibrium (fixed demand) Partial equilibrium (price elastic demand) Partial equilibrium (fixed demand) General equilibrium (closed economy) (Systems dynamics based approach) Partial equilibrium (fixed demand) General equilibrium (closed economy) Partial equilibrium (price elastic demand) Partial equilibrium (price elastic demand) Partial equilibrium (price elastic demand) General equilibrium (closed economy) (MAgPIE: partial equilibrium model of the agricultural sector) Partial equilibrium (price elastic demand) Partial equilibrium (price elastic demand) General equilibrium (closed economy)
Model scope and methods-Solution horizon Recursive dynamic (myopic) Recursive dynamic (myopic) Recursive dynamic (myopic) Recursive dynamic (myopic) Intertemporal optimization (foresight) Intertemporal optimization (foresight) Intertemporal optimization (foresight) Intertemporal optimization (foresight) Intertemporal optimization (foresight) Recursive dynamic (myopic) Recursive dynamic (myopic) Recursive dynamic (myopic) Recursive dynamic (myopic) Recursive dynamic (myopic) Recursive dynamic (myopic) Intertemporal optimization (foresight) Recursive dynamic (myopic) Recursive dynamic (myopic) Recursive dynamic (myopic) Intertemporal optimization (foresight) Intertemporal optimization (foresight) Intertemporal optimization (foresight) Recursive dynamic (myopic) Recursive dynamic (myopic) MAgPIE: recursive-dynamic;REMIND-MAgPIE: Inter-temporal (foresight) Intertemporal optimization (foresight) Intertemporal optimization (foresight) inter-temporal (foresight)
Model scope and methods-Solution method Optimization Optimization Simulation Simulation Optimization Simulation Optimization Optimization Optimization The COFFEE model is solved through Linear Programming (LP). The TEA model is formulated as a mixed complementary problem (MCP) and is solved through Mathematical Programming System for General Equilibrium -- MPSGE within GAMS using the PATH solver. Optimization Simulation Optimization Recursive dynamic solution method Optimization Simulation (Recursive dynamic solution method) Optimization Dynamic recursive with annual time steps through 2100. Simulation (Imaclim-R is implemented in Scilab, and uses the fonction fsolve from a shared C++ library to solve the static equilibrium system of non-linear equations.) Optimization Simulation (Imaclim-NLU is implemented in Scilab, and uses the fonction fsolve from a shared C++ library to solve the static equilibrium system of non-linear equations.) Simulation Optimization Optimization The economic problem is formulated as a three-level nested problem. The solution of these three sub-problems yield the dynamic capital path (investment/consumption trade-off in each simulation year), and factor and output prices which clear all factor and goods markets. Optimization Optimization Optimization Simulation Simulation (Recursive simulation) Simulation Optimization (MAgPIE: cost minimization) Optimization Linear optimisation Optimization
Model scope and methods-Spatial dimension Number of regions:1 (India) Number of regions:10 Number of regions:17 (Japan;China;India;Rest of Asia;Rest of Europe;Former Soviet Union;Turkey;Canada;United States;Brazil;Rest of South America;Middle East;North Africa;Rest of Africa;Rest of East and South East Asia;EU;New Zealand and Australia) Number of regions:1 (Asia) Number of regions: Number of regions:one country Number of regions: Number of regions:13 (BRA (Brazil);CAZ (Canada, Australia, and New Zealand);CHA (China incl. Hng Kong);EUR (EU27+3 (Switzerland, Norway, and Iceland));IND (India);JPN (Japan);MNA (Middle East and North Africa);OAS (Other Asia);OLA (Other Latin America);ORF (Other Reforming Economies);RUS (Russia);SSA (Sub-Saharan Africa);USA (United States)) Number of regions:5 Number of regions:12 (USA;China;Japan;Russian Federation;India;Other Branches of Umbrella Group;European Union;Other West European Developed Countries;Eastern European CIS excluding Russian Federation;Asia excluding China,India and Japan;Middle East and Africa;Latin America) Number of regions:18 (AFR Africa;AUS Australia and New Zealand;BRA Brazil;CAM Central America;CAN Canada;CAS Caspian Region;CHN China;EEU Europe;IND India;JPN Japan;KOR South Korea;MEA Middle East;RAS Rest of Asia and Oceania;RUS Russia;SAF South Africa;SAM South America;USA United States;WEU Rest of Europe) Number of regions:1 Number of regions: Number of regions:61 (USA;CAN;CHN;IND;BRA;BEL;DNK;DEU;GRC;ESP;FRA;IRL;ITA;LUX;NLD;AUT;PRT;FIN;SWE;GBR;CZE;EST;CYP;LVA;LTU;HUN;MLT;POL;SVN;SVK;BGR;ROU;NOR;CHE;ISL;HRV;TUR;MKD;JPN;AUS;NZL;RUS;REST OF ANNEX I;MEX;ARG;COL;REST OF LATIN AMERICA;KOR;TWN;IDN;ASEAN;OPEC;REST OF WORLD;UKR;SAU;NGA;ZAF;REST OF AFRICA;AFRICA OPEC;MYS;KAZ) Number of regions:18 (USA;EU;China;India;Japan;Brazil;Canada;Mexico;Russia;South Korea;Indonesia;Africa;Middle East;Australia and New Zealand;Dynamic Asia;Rest of East Asia;Rest of Eurasia;Rest of Latin America) Number of regions:32 (default) (USA;Canada;Mexico;Australia_NZ;Japan;South Korea;EU-12;EU-15;European Free Trade Association;Europe_Non_EU;Europe_Eastern;Russia;China;Taiwan;Central Asia;South Asia;Southeast Asia;Indonesia;India;Pakistan;Middle East;Africa_Eastern;Africa_Northern;Africa_Southern;Africa_Western;South Africa;Argentina;Brazil;Central America and Caribbean;Colombia;South America_Northern;South America_Southern) Number of regions: Number of regions:46 Number of regions:up to 140. Number of regions:25 (Italy;France;Germany;UK;RestofEU15;RestofEU27;NorthEurope;RoEurope;USA;Canada;Japan;South_Korea;Russia;China;India;Brazil;ANZ;RoAsia;SouthAfrica;MDE;NAF;SSA;SASIA;EASIA;LACA) Number of regions:186 (Afghanistan;Albania;Algeria;Angola;Argentina;Armenia;Australia;Austria;Azerbaijan;Bahamas;Bahrain;Bangladesh;Barbados;Belarus;Belgium;Belize;Benin;Bhutan;Bolivia;Bosnia;Botswana;Brazil;Brunei;Bulgaria;Burkina Faso;Burundi;Cambodia;Cameroon;Canada;Cape Verde;Central African Republic;Chad;Chile;China;Colombia;Comoros;Congo, Democratic Republic of;Congo, Republic of;Costa Rica;Cote d'Ivoire;Croatia;Cuba;Cyprus;Czech Republic;Denmark;Djibouti;Dominican Republic;Ecuador;Egypt;El Salvador;Equatorial Guinea;Eritrea;Estonia;Ethiopia;Fiji;Finland;France;Gabon;Gambia;Georgia;Germany;Ghana;Greece;Grenada;Guatemala;Guinea;Guinea Bissau;Guyana;Haiti;Honduras;Hong Kong;Hungary;Iceland;India;Indonesia;Iran;Iraq;Ireland;Israel;Italy;Jamaica;Japan;Jordan;Kazakhstan;Kenya;North Korea;South Korea;Kosovo;Kuwait;Kyrgyzstan;Laos;Latvia;Lebanon;Lesotho;Liberia;Libya;Lithuania;Luxembourg;Macedonia;Madagascar;Malawi;Malaysia;Maldives;Mali;Malta;Mauritania;Mauritius;Mexico;Micronesia;Moldova;Mongolia;Montenegro;Morocco;Mozambique;Myanmar;Namibia;Nepal;Netherlands;New Zealand;Nicaragua;Niger;Nigeria;Norway;Oman;Pakistan;Palestine;Panama;Papua New Guinea;Paraguay;Peru;Philippines;Poland;Portugal;Puerto Rico;Qatar;Romania;Russia;Rwanda;Samoa;Sao Tome and Principe;Saudi Arabia;Senegal;Serbia;Seychelles;Sierra Leone;Singapore;Slovak Republic;Slovenia;Solomon Islands;Somalia;South Africa;Spain;Sri Lanka;St. Lucia;St. Vincent and the Grenadines;Sudan;South Sudan;Suriname;Swaziland;Sweden;Switzerland;Syria;Taiwan;Tajikistan;Tanzania;Thailand;Timor-Leste;Togo;Tonga;Trinidad;Tunisia;Turkey;Turkmenistan;UAE;Uganda;Ukraine;United Kingdom;Uruguay;USA;Uzbekistan;Vanuatu;Venezuela;Vietnam;Yemen;Zambia;Zimbabwe) Number of regions:12 (USA;Canada;Europe;China;India;Brazil;Middle East;Africa;Commonwealth of Independant States;OECD Pacific;Rest of Asia;Rest of Latin Amercia) Number of regions:India Number of regions:12 (USA;Canada;Europe;China;India;Brazil;Middle East;Africa;Commonwealth of Independant States;OECD Pacific;Rest of Asia;Rest of Latin Amercia) Number of regions:26 (Canada;USA;Mexico;Rest of Central America;Brazil;Rest of South America;Northern Africa;Western Africa;Eastern Africa;South Africa;Western Europe;Central Europe;Turkey;Ukraine +;Asian-Stan;Russia +;Middle East;India +;Korea;China +;Southeastern Asia;Indonesia +;Japan;Oceania;Rest of South Asia;Rest of Southern Africa) Number of regions: Number of regions:9 (US;West Europe and Canada;Asia Pacific OECD countries;Economies in Transition Countries;China;Middle East;Other Asian Developing Countries;Africa;Latin America) Number of regions:9 (China;EU27+;India;Latin America;Other Developing Countries;Other Industrialized Countries;sub-Saharan Africa;Transition Countries;USA) Number of regions:1 (India) Number of regions: Number of regions:1 (KOREA) Number of regions:11 (AFR (Sub-Saharan Africa);CPA (Centrally Planned Asia & China);EEU (Eastern Europe);FSU (Former Soviet Union);LAM (Latin America and the Carribean);MEA (Middle East and North Africa);NAM (North America);PAO (Pacific OECD);PAS (Other Pacific Asia);SAS (South Asia);WEU (Western Europe)) Number of regions:28 (Adjacent Europe;ASEAN;Caspian Region;Australia & New Zealand;Brazil;Canada;Chile;China;Denmark;Eastern Europe;Emerging Asia;Emerging Latin America;Finalnd;India;Israel;Japan;South Korea;Middle East;Mexico;North & Central Africa;Norway;Other EMerging Europe;Russia;Sweden;United States of America;South Africa;Iceland;Western Europe) Number of regions:66 Number of regions:10 (China;India;North America;OECD Pacific;EU-28;Middle East and North Africa;CIS;Emerging Economies;Rest of the world) Number of regions:12 Number of regions:36 (Algeria;Angola;Argentina;Australia and New Zealand;Brazil;Canada;Central Africa;Chile;China;Colombia;Congo DR;Eastern Africa;Eastern Europe;Egypt;Ethiopia;Former Soviet Union;India;Japan;Kenya;Libya;Madagascar;Mexico;Middle East;Morocco;Nigeria;Other Developing Asia;Other Latin America;South Africa;South Korea;Southeast Africa;Southern Africa;Tunisia;United States of America;Venezuela;Western Africa;Western Europe) Number of regions:16 (Africa;Australia;Canada;Central and South America;China;Eastern Europe;Former Soviet Union;India;Japan;Mexico;Middle East;Other Developing Asia;South Korea;United Kingdom;United States of Amercia;Western Europe) Number of regions:17
Model scope and methods-Temporal dimension Base year:2000, time steps:Annual, horizon: Base year:2010, time steps:1, horizon: 2050 Base year:2005, time steps:Annual, horizon: 2100 Base year:2010, time steps:5 year, horizon: 2060 Base year:, time steps:, horizon: Base year:2005, time steps:one year step, horizon: 2005-2050 Base year:, time steps:, horizon: Base year:2010, time steps:10, horizon: 2150 Base year:2010, time steps:5 year, horizon: 2050 Base year:2011, time steps:5, horizon: 2011-2100 Base year:2010, time steps:5 year, horizon: 2100 Base year:2015, time steps:5, horizon: 2050 Base year:, time steps:, horizon: Base year:2010, time steps:yearly, horizon: 2100 Base year:2007, time steps:5 years from 2015, horizon: 2100 Base year:2015, time steps:5-year (default), minimum time step is 1-year, horizon: 2100 Base year:, time steps:, horizon: Base year:2014, time steps:5, horizon: 2100 Base year:2014, time steps:yearly, horizon: Base year:2011, time steps:1-year and 5-year time steps, horizon: 2050 Base year:2015, time steps:1 year time steps, horizon: 2100 Base year:2001, time steps:Annual, horizon: 2050 or 2100 Base year:2012, time steps:2030 and 2050, horizon: 2050 Base year:2001, time steps:Annual, horizon: 2050 or 2100 Base year:1970, time steps:1-5 year time step, horizon: 2100 Base year:2015, time steps:annual, horizon: Base year:2010, time steps:5 years and 25 years, horizon: 1990-2100 Base year:2004, time steps:annual, horizon: 2100 Base year:2001, time steps:5, horizon: 2051 Base year:, time steps:, horizon: Base year:2015, time steps:5, horizon: 2060 Base year:2030, time steps:10, horizon: 2110 Base year:2010, time steps:5 or 10, horizon: configurable (2050 or 2100) Base year:2015, time steps:Yearly, horizon: 2015-2100 Base year:2000, time steps:1, horizon: 2100 Base year:2005, time steps:5, horizon: 2005-2100 Base year:2005, time steps:10 years from 2010 to 2100, horizon: 95 years Base year:2005, time steps:5 years up to 2050 and 10 years beyond (changeable), horizon: 95 years (2005-2100) Base year:2005, time steps:5, horizon: 2150
Model scope and methods-Time discounting type Discount rate exogenous Discount rate exogenous Discount rate endogenous Discount rate exogenous Discount rate exogenous Discount rate exogenous Discount rate exogenous Discount rate exogenous Discount rate exogenous Discount rate exogenous Discount rate exogenous Discount rate exogenous Discount rate exogenous Discount rate exogenous Discount rate exogenous Discount rate exogenous Discount rate exogenous Discount rate exogenous Discount rate exogenous
Socio-economic drivers-Autonomous energy efficiency improvements Yes (endogenous) Yes (endogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (endogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (endogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (endogenous) Yes (endogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (endogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (endogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (endogenous) Yes (endogenous) Yes (endogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous)
Socio-economic drivers-Education level Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (endogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous)
Socio-economic drivers-Employment rate Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (endogenous) Yes (endogenous) Yes (endogenous) Yes (endogenous) Yes (endogenous) Yes (endogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (endogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous)
Socio-economic drivers-GDP Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (endogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (endogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (endogenous) Yes (endogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (endogenous) Yes (endogenous) Yes (endogenous) Yes (endogenous) Yes (endogenous) Yes (endogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (endogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (endogenous)
Socio-economic drivers-Income distribution Yes (exogenous) Yes (endogenous) Yes (endogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (endogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous)
Socio-economic drivers-Labor productivity Yes (exogenous) Yes (endogenous) Yes (endogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (endogenous) Yes (endogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous)
Socio-economic drivers-Other socio economic driver Behavioural change Behavioural change
Socio-economic drivers-Population Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous)
Socio-economic drivers-Population age structure Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (endogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous)
Socio-economic drivers-Total factor productivity Yes (endogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (endogenous) Yes (endogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (endogenous) Yes (endogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (endogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous)
Socio-economic drivers-Urbanization rate Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous) Yes (exogenous)
Energy-Behaviour For specific sectors, FTT is used to estimate investor decision making regarding technology choices. Producers maximize profit and consumers maximize utility. Price response (via elasticities), and non-price drivers (infrastructure and urban forms conditioning location choices, different asymptotes on industrial goods consumption saturation levels with income rise, speed of personal vehicle ownership rate increase, speed of residential area increase). Price response (via elasticities), and non-price drivers (infrastructure and urban forms conditioning location choices, different asymptotes on industrial goods consumption saturation levels with income rise, speed of personal vehicle ownership rate increase, speed of residential area increase). In the energy model, substitution among technologies is described in the model using the multinomial logit formulation. The multinomial logit model implies that the market share of a certain technology or fuel type depends on costs relative to competing technologies. The option with the lowest costs gets the largest market share, but in most cases not the full market. We interpret the latter as a representation of heterogeneity in the form of specific market niches for every technology or fuel. energy technology module, which analyzes the short and mid-term energy utilization technologies under different conditions, and determines the energy demand under different technology compositions. The energy demand in energy technology module will modify the short and mid-term energy demand in society, economy and energy activities module, which makes the energy analysis in macro-economic model better reflect the short and mid-term energy activities Activity drivers depend on income per capita and energy prices via elasticities.

Energy demand depends on activity drivers, energy prices and technology costs.

Primary energy supply depends on remaining resources, production cost and price effects.
Elastic demand mode available (includes exogenous elasticity of each energy demand with respect to their own price) Technology and region specific hurdle rates.
Energy-CO2 Yes (aggregate) Yes (aggregate) Yes (aggregate) Yes (aggregate) Yes (aggregate) Yes (aggregate) Yes (aggregate) Yes (aggregate) Yes (aggregate) Yes (aggregate)
Energy-Electricity Yes (aggregate) Yes (spatially explicit) Yes (aggregate) Yes (aggregate) Yes (aggregate) Yes (aggregate) Yes (aggregate) Yes (aggregate) Yes (aggregate) Yes (aggregate) Yes (aggregate) Yes (aggregate) Yes (aggregate) Yes (aggregate) Yes (aggregate) Yes (aggregate) Yes (aggregate) Yes (aggregate) Yes (aggregate) Yes (aggregate) Yes (aggregate) Yes (aggregate)
Energy-Electricity technologies Coal w/o CCS;Coal w/ CCS;Gas w/o CCS;Gas w/ CCS;Oil w/o CCS;Oil w/ CCS;Bioenergy w/o CCS;Bioenergy w/ CCS;Geothermal power;Nuclear power;Solar power;Solar power-central PV;Solar power-distributed PV;Solar power-CSP;Wind power;Wind power-onshore;Hydroelectric power Coal w/o CCS;Coal w/ CCS;Gas w/o CCS;Gas w/ CCS;Oil w/o CCS;Bioenergy w/o CCS;Bioenergy w/ CCS;Geothermal power;Nuclear power;Solar power;Solar power-central PV;Solar power-distributed PV;Wind power;Wind power-onshore;Wind power-offshore;Hydroelectric power;Ocean power Coal w/o CCS;Coal w/ CCS;Gas w/o CCS;Gas w/ CCS;Oil w/o CCS;Bioenergy w/o CCS;Bioenergy w/ CCS;Geothermal power;Nuclear power;Solar power;Wind power;Wind power-onshore;Wind power-offshore;Hydroelectric power Coal w/o CCS;Coal w/ CCS;Gas w/o CCS;Gas w/ CCS;Oil w/o CCS;Oil w/ CCS;Bioenergy w/o CCS;Bioenergy w/ CCS;Geothermal power;Solar power;Wind power;Hydroelectric power Coal w/o CCS;Coal w/ CCS;Gas w/o CCS;Gas w/ CCS;Oil w/o CCS;Oil w/ CCS;Bioenergy w/o CCS;Bioenergy w/ CCS;Geothermal power;Nuclear power;Solar power;Solar power-CSP;Wind power;Hydroelectric power Coal w/o CCS;Coal w/ CCS;Gas w/o CCS;Gas w/ CCS;Oil w/o CCS;Bioenergy w/o CCS;Bioenergy w/ CCS;Geothermal power;Nuclear power;Solar power;Wind power;Wind power-onshore;Wind power-offshore;Hydroelectric power Coal w/o CCS;Coal w/ CCS;Gas w/o CCS;Gas w/ CCS;Oil w/o CCS;Oil w/ CCS;Bioenergy w/o CCS;Bioenergy w/ CCS;Geothermal power;Nuclear power;Solar power;Solar power-central PV;Solar power-distributed PV;Solar power-CSP;Wind power;Wind power-onshore;Wind power-offshore;Hydroelectric power;Ocean power (Hydrokinetic) Coal w/o CCS;Coal w/ CCS;Gas w/o CCS;Gas w/ CCS;Oil w/o CCS;Oil w/ CCS;Bioenergy w/o CCS;Bioenergy w/ CCS;Nuclear power;Solar power;Wind power;Hydroelectric power Coal w/o CCS;Coal w/ CCS;Gas w/o CCS;Gas w/ CCS;Oil w/o CCS;Oil w/ CCS;Bioenergy w/o CCS;Bioenergy w/ CCS;Geothermal power;Nuclear power;Solar power;Solar power-central PV;Solar power-distributed PV;Solar power-CSP;Wind power;Wind power-onshore;Wind power-offshore;Hydroelectric power;Ocean power Coal w/o CCS;Coal w/ CCS;Gas w/o CCS;Gas w/ CCS;Oil w/o CCS;Oil w/ CCS;Bioenergy w/o CCS;Bioenergy w/ CCS;Geothermal power;Nuclear power;Solar power;Solar power-central PV;Solar power-distributed PV;Solar power-CSP;Wind power;Wind power-onshore;Wind power-offshore;Hydroelectric power;Ocean power Coal w/o CCS;Coal w/ CCS;Gas w/o CCS;Gas w/ CCS;Oil w/o CCS;Bioenergy w/o CCS;Bioenergy w/ CCS;Geothermal power;Nuclear power;Solar power-CSP;Wind power-onshore;Wind power-offshore;Hydroelectric power;Ocean power (Solar power PV) Coal w/o CCS;Coal w/ CCS;Gas w/o CCS;Gas w/ CCS;Oil w/o CCS;Oil w/ CCS;Bioenergy w/o CCS;Bioenergy w/ CCS;Nuclear power;Solar power;Wind power;Hydroelectric power Coal w/o CCS;Coal w/ CCS;Gas w/o CCS;Gas w/ CCS;Oil w/o CCS;Oil w/ CCS;Bioenergy w/o CCS;Bioenergy w/ CCS;Geothermal power;Nuclear power;Solar power;Solar power-central PV;Solar power-distributed PV;Solar power-CSP;Wind power;Wind power-onshore;Wind power-offshore;Hydroelectric power Coal w/ CCS;Gas w/o CCS;Gas w/ CCS;Oil w/o CCS;Bioenergy w/o CCS;Geothermal power;Nuclear power;Solar power;Solar power-central PV;Wind power;Wind power-onshore;Wind power-offshore;Hydroelectric power Coal w/o CCS;Gas w/o CCS;Oil w/o CCS;Nuclear power;Solar power;Wind power;Hydroelectric power Coal w/o CCS;Gas w/o CCS;Oil w/o CCS;Nuclear power;Solar power;Wind power;Hydroelectric power Coal w/o CCS;Coal w/ CCS;Gas w/o CCS;Gas w/ CCS;Oil w/o CCS;Oil w/ CCS;Bioenergy w/o CCS;Bioenergy w/ CCS;Nuclear power;Solar power;Solar power-central PV;Solar power-distributed PV;Solar power-CSP;Wind power;Wind power-onshore;Wind power-offshore;Hydroelectric power Coal w/o CCS;Coal w/ CCS;Gas w/o CCS;Gas w/ CCS;Oil w/o CCS;Oil w/ CCS;Bioenergy w/o CCS;Bioenergy w/ CCS;Geothermal power;Nuclear power;Solar power;Solar power-central PV;Solar power-distributed PV;Solar power-CSP;Wind power;Wind power-onshore;Wind power-offshore;Hydroelectric power;Ocean power Coal w/o CCS;Coal w/ CCS;Gas w/o CCS;Gas w/ CCS;Oil w/o CCS;Oil w/ CCS;Bioenergy w/o CCS;Bioenergy w/ CCS;Nuclear power;Solar power;Solar power-central PV;Solar power-distributed PV;Solar power-CSP;Wind power;Wind power-onshore;Wind power-offshore;Hydroelectric power Coal w/o CCS;Coal w/ CCS;Gas w/o CCS;Gas w/ CCS;Oil w/o CCS;Oil w/ CCS;Bioenergy w/o CCS;Bioenergy w/ CCS;Geothermal power;Nuclear power;Solar power;Solar power-central PV;Solar power-CSP;Wind power;Wind power-onshore;Wind power-offshore;Hydroelectric power Coal w/o CCS;Coal w/ CCS;Gas w/o CCS;Gas w/ CCS;Oil w/o CCS;Oil w/ CCS;Bioenergy w/o CCS;Bioenergy w/ CCS;Geothermal power;Nuclear power;Solar power;Solar power-central PV;Solar power-distributed PV;Solar power-CSP;Wind power;Wind power-onshore;Wind power-offshore;Hydroelectric power Coal w/o CCS;Coal w/ CCS;Gas w/o CCS;Gas w/ CCS;Oil w/o CCS;Oil w/ CCS;Bioenergy w/o CCS;Bioenergy w/ CCS;Geothermal power;Nuclear power;Solar power;Solar power-CSP;Wind power;Hydroelectric power Coal;Gas;Oil (non-fossil) Coal w/o CCS;Coal w/ CCS;Gas w/o CCS;Oil w/o CCS;Bioenergy w/o CCS;Geothermal power;Nuclear power;Solar power;Solar power-central PV;Solar power-distributed PV;Solar power-CSP;Wind power;Wind power-onshore;Wind power-offshore;Hydroelectric power;Ocean power Nuclear power;Solar power;Wind power;Hydroelectric power;Coal w/o CCS;Coal w/ CCS;Gas w/o CCS;Gas w/ CCS;Oil w/o CCS;Wind power-onshore;Wind power-offshore;Solar power-central PV;Solar power-distributed PV Coal w/o CCS;Coal w/ CCS;Gas w/o CCS;Gas w/ CCS;Oil w/o CCS;Bioenergy w/o CCS;Bioenergy w/ CCS;Geothermal power;Nuclear power;Solar power;Solar power-central PV;Solar power-CSP;Wind power;Wind power-onshore;Wind power-offshore;Hydroelectric power Coal w/o CCS;Coal w/ CCS;Gas w/o CCS;Gas w/ CCS;Oil w/o CCS;Bioenergy w/o CCS;Bioenergy w/ CCS;Geothermal power;Nuclear power;Solar power-central PV;Solar power-distributed PV;Solar power-CSP;Wind power;Wind power-onshore;Wind power-offshore;Hydroelectric power;Ocean power Coal w/o CCS;Coal w/ CCS;Gas w/o CCS;Gas w/ CCS;Oil w/o CCS;Bioenergy w/o CCS;Bioenergy w/ CCS;Geothermal power;Nuclear power;Solar power;Solar power-central PV;Solar power-CSP;Wind power;Wind power-onshore;Wind power-offshore;Hydroelectric power;Ocean power;Solar power-distributed PV Coal w/o CCS;Coal w/ CCS;Gas w/o CCS;Gas w/ CCS;Oil w/o CCS;Oil w/ CCS;Bioenergy w/o CCS;Bioenergy w/ CCS;Geothermal power;Nuclear power;Solar power;Solar power-central PV;Solar power-CSP;Wind power;Wind power-onshore;Wind power-offshore;Hydroelectric power Coal w/o CCS;Coal w/ CCS;Gas w/o CCS;Gas w/ CCS;Oil w/o CCS;Bioenergy w/o CCS;Bioenergy w/ CCS;Geothermal power;Nuclear power;Solar power;Solar power-central PV;Solar power-CSP;Wind power;Hydroelectric power Coal w/o CCS;Coal w/ CCS;Gas w/o CCS;Gas w/ CCS;Oil w/o CCS;Oil w/ CCS;Bioenergy w/o CCS;Bioenergy w/ CCS;Geothermal power;Nuclear power;Solar power;Solar power-central PV;Solar power-distributed PV;Solar power-CSP;Wind power;Wind power-onshore;Wind power-offshore;Hydroelectric power;Ocean power Coal w/o CCS;Coal w/ CCS;Gas w/o CCS;Gas w/ CCS;Oil w/o CCS;Oil w/ CCS;Bioenergy w/o CCS;Bioenergy w/ CCS;Geothermal power;Nuclear power;Solar power-central PV;Solar power-distributed PV;Solar power-CSP;Wind power-onshore;Wind power-offshore;Hydroelectric power;Ocean power Coal w/o CCS;Coal w/ CCS;Gas w/o CCS;Gas w/ CCS;Oil w/o CCS;Oil w/ CCS;Bioenergy w/o CCS;Bioenergy w/ CCS;Nuclear power;Solar power;Solar power-central PV;Solar power-CSP;Wind power;Wind power-onshore;Wind power-offshore;Hydroelectric power;Solar power-distributed PV
Energy-Energy technology choice Lowest cost with adjustment penalties Linear choice (lowest cost) Logit choice model Logit choice model Linear choice (lowest cost) Linear choice (lowest cost) Production function Linear choice (lowest cost) Linear choice (lowest cost) Logit choice model Production function Logit choice model Production function (Nested CES function) Production function Logit choice model Linear choice (lowest cost) Logit choice model Logit choice model Logit choice model Linear choice (lowest cost) Linear choice (lowest cost) Linear choice (lowest cost) Lowest cost with adjustment penalties Logit choice model Logit choice model Linear choice (lowest cost) No discrete technology choices
Energy-Energy technology deployment System integration constraints Expansion and decline constraints Expansion and decline constraints Expansion and decline constraints System integration constraints System integration constraints System integration constraints Expansion and decline constraints;System integration constraints Expansion and decline constraints;System integration constraints Expansion and decline constraints;System integration constraints System integration constraints Expansion and decline constraints Expansion and decline constraints;System integration constraints Expansion and decline constraints Expansion and decline constraints;System integration constraints Expansion and decline constraints;System integration constraints Expansion and decline constraints Expansion and decline constraints;System integration constraints Expansion and decline constraints;System integration constraints Expansion and decline constraints;System integration constraints Expansion and decline constraints;System integration constraints Expansion and decline constraints Expansion and decline constraints;System integration constraints Expansion and decline constraints;System integration constraints Expansion and decline constraints;System integration constraints
Energy-Energy technology substitutability Mixed high and low substitutability Mostly high substitutability Mostly high substitutability in some sectors and mostly low substitutability in other sectors Mixed high and low substitutability Mixed high and low substitutability Mostly high substitutability Mixed high and low substitutability Mixed high and low substitutability Mixed high and low substitutability Mixed high and low substitutability Mixed high and low substitutability Mixed high and low substitutability Mixed high and low substitutability Mostly high substitutability Mixed high and low substitutability Mixed high and low substitutability Discrete technology choices with mostly high substitutability in some sectors and mostly low substitutability in other sectors Mixed high and low substitutability Discrete technology choices with mostly high substitutability in some sectors and mostly low substitutability in other sectors Mostly high substitutability Mixed high and low substitutability Mostly high substitutability Mixed high and low substitutability Mostly high substitutability Mixed high and low substitutability Mostly high substitutability Mixed high and low substitutability Mostly high substitutability Mixed high and low substitutability Mostly high substitutability
Energy-Freight transportation Freight trains;Heavy duty vehicles;Freight aircrafts;Freight ships Freight trains;Heavy duty vehicles;Freight aircrafts;Freight ships Freight trains;Heavy duty vehicles;Freight aircrafts;Freight ships Freight trains;Heavy duty vehicles;Freight aircrafts;Freight ships Freight trains;Heavy duty vehicles;Freight ships (Gasoline HDVs;Hybrid HDVs;Fuel-cell HDVs) Freight trains;Heavy duty vehicles;Freight aircrafts;Freight ships Freight trains;Heavy duty vehicles;Freight aircrafts;Freight ships Freight trains;Heavy duty vehicles;Freight aircrafts;Freight ships Freight trains;Heavy duty vehicles;Freight aircrafts;Freight ships Freight trains;Heavy duty vehicles;Freight aircrafts;Freight ships Freight trains;Heavy duty vehicles;Freight aircrafts;Freight ships Freight trains;Heavy duty vehicles;Freight ships Freight trains;Heavy duty vehicles;Freight aircrafts;Freight ships Freight trains;Heavy duty vehicles;Freight aircrafts;Freight ships Freight trains;Heavy duty vehicles;Freight aircrafts;Freight ships Freight trains;Heavy duty vehicles;Freight aircrafts;Freight ships Freight trains;Heavy duty vehicles;Freight aircrafts;Freight ships Freight trains;Heavy duty vehicles;Freight ships Heavy duty vehicles Heavy duty vehicles Freight trains;Heavy duty vehicles;Freight aircrafts;Freight ships Freight trains;Heavy duty vehicles;Freight ships
Energy-Gas Yes (aggregate) Yes (aggregate) Yes (aggregate) Yes (aggregate) Yes (aggregate) Yes (aggregate) Yes (aggregate) Yes (aggregate) Yes (aggregate) Yes (aggregate) Yes (aggregate) Yes (aggregate) Yes (aggregate)
Energy-Heat Yes (aggregate) Yes (aggregate) Yes (aggregate) Yes (aggregate) Yes (aggregate) Yes (aggregate) Yes (aggregate)
Energy-Heat generation Other Coal heat;Natural gas heat;Oil heat;Solarthermal heat Coal heat;Natural gas heat;Oil heat;Biomass heat;CHP (coupled heat and power) Coal heat;Natural gas heat;Biomass heat;Geothermal heat;Solarthermal heat;CHP (coupled heat and power) Coal heat;Natural gas heat;Oil heat;Biomass heat;Geothermal heat;Solarthermal heat;CHP (coupled heat and power) Coal heat;Natural gas heat;Oil heat;Biomass heat;Geothermal heat;CHP (coupled heat and power) Coal heat;Natural gas heat;Oil heat;Biomass heat;Solarthermal heat;CHP (coupled heat and power) Coal heat;Natural gas heat;Oil heat;Biomass heat;Geothermal heat;Solarthermal heat;CHP (coupled heat and power) CHP (coupled heat and power) CHP (coupled heat and power) CHP (coupled heat and power) CHP (coupled heat and power);Coal heat;Natural gas heat;Oil heat;Biomass heat;Geothermal heat Coal heat;Natural gas heat;Oil heat;Biomass heat;Geothermal heat;Solarthermal heat;CHP (coupled heat and power) Coal heat;Natural gas heat;Oil heat;Biomass heat;Geothermal heat;Solarthermal heat;CHP (coupled heat and power) Coal heat;Natural gas heat;Oil heat;Biomass heat;Solarthermal heat;CHP (coupled heat and power) CHP (coupled heat and power) CHP (coupled heat and power);Coal heat;Natural gas heat;Oil heat;Biomass heat;Geothermal heat;Solarthermal heat Coal heat;Natural gas heat;Oil heat;Biomass heat;Geothermal heat;Solarthermal heat;CHP (coupled heat and power) CHP (coupled heat and power);Coal heat;Natural gas heat;Oil heat;Biomass heat;Solarthermal heat CHP (coupled heat and power) CHP (coupled heat and power);Coal heat;Natural gas heat;Oil heat;Biomass heat;Geothermal heat Coal heat;Natural gas heat;Oil heat;Biomass heat;Geothermal heat;Solarthermal heat;CHP (coupled heat and power) Coal heat;Natural gas heat;Oil heat;Biomass heat;Geothermal heat;Solarthermal heat;CHP (coupled heat and power)
Energy-Hydrogen Yes (aggregate) Yes (aggregate) Yes (aggregate) Yes (aggregate) Yes (aggregate) Yes (aggregate) Yes (aggregate) Yes (aggregate) Yes (aggregate) Yes (aggregate) Yes (aggregate)
Energy-Hydrogen production Natural gas to hydrogen w/o CCS;Natural gas to hydrogen w/ CCS;Oil to hydrogen w/o CCS;Oil to hydrogen w/ CCS;Biomass to hydrogen w/o CCS;Biomass to hydrogen w/ CCS Electrolysis Coal to hydrogen w/ CCS;Electrolysis Natural gas to hydrogen w/o CCS;Natural gas to hydrogen w/ CCS;Oil to hydrogen w/o CCS;Oil to hydrogen w/ CCS;Biomass to hydrogen w/o CCS;Biomass to hydrogen w/ CCS;Electrolysis Coal to hydrogen w/o CCS;Coal to hydrogen w/ CCS;Natural gas to hydrogen w/o CCS;Natural gas to hydrogen w/ CCS;Oil to hydrogen w/o CCS;Oil to hydrogen w/ CCS;Biomass to hydrogen w/o CCS;Biomass to hydrogen w/ CCS;Electrolysis Coal to hydrogen w/o CCS;Coal to hydrogen w/ CCS;Natural gas to hydrogen w/o CCS;Natural gas to hydrogen w/ CCS;Electrolysis Coal to hydrogen w/o CCS;Coal to hydrogen w/ CCS;Natural gas to hydrogen w/o CCS;Natural gas to hydrogen w/ CCS;Oil to hydrogen w/o CCS;Oil to hydrogen w/ CCS;Biomass to hydrogen w/o CCS;Biomass to hydrogen w/ CCS;Nuclear thermochemical hydrogen;Solar thermochemical hydrogen;Electrolysis Coal to hydrogen w/o CCS;Natural gas to hydrogen w/o CCS;Oil to hydrogen w/o CCS;Oil to hydrogen w/ CCS;Biomass to hydrogen w/o CCS Electrolysis;Coal to hydrogen w/o CCS;Coal to hydrogen w/ CCS;Natural gas to hydrogen w/o CCS;Natural gas to hydrogen w/ CCS;Oil to hydrogen w/o CCS;Oil to hydrogen w/ CCS;Biomass to hydrogen w/o CCS;Biomass to hydrogen w/ CCS;Solar thermochemical hydrogen Coal to hydrogen w/o CCS;Coal to hydrogen w/ CCS;Natural gas to hydrogen w/o CCS;Natural gas to hydrogen w/ CCS;Oil to hydrogen w/o CCS;Oil to hydrogen w/ CCS;Biomass to hydrogen w/o CCS;Biomass to hydrogen w/ CCS;Nuclear thermochemical hydrogen;Solar thermochemical hydrogen;Electrolysis Coal to hydrogen w/o CCS;Coal to hydrogen w/ CCS;Natural gas to hydrogen w/o CCS;Natural gas to hydrogen w/ CCS;Oil to hydrogen w/o CCS;Oil to hydrogen w/ CCS;Biomass to hydrogen w/o CCS;Biomass to hydrogen w/ CCS;Nuclear thermochemical hydrogen;Solar thermochemical hydrogen;Electrolysis Natural gas to hydrogen w/o CCS Natural gas to hydrogen w/o CCS;Electrolysis;Oil to hydrogen w/o CCS;Coal to hydrogen w/o CCS Electrolysis;Coal to hydrogen w/o CCS;Coal to hydrogen w/ CCS;Natural gas to hydrogen w/o CCS;Natural gas to hydrogen w/ CCS;Biomass to hydrogen w/o CCS;Biomass to hydrogen w/ CCS Coal to hydrogen w/o CCS;Coal to hydrogen w/ CCS;Natural gas to hydrogen w/o CCS;Natural gas to hydrogen w/ CCS;Biomass to hydrogen w/o CCS;Biomass to hydrogen w/ CCS Electrolysis;Coal to hydrogen w/o CCS;Coal to hydrogen w/ CCS;Natural gas to hydrogen w/o CCS;Natural gas to hydrogen w/ CCS;Oil to hydrogen w/o CCS;Biomass to hydrogen w/o CCS;Biomass to hydrogen w/ CCS;Nuclear thermochemical hydrogen;Solar thermochemical hydrogen Coal to hydrogen w/o CCS;Coal to hydrogen w/ CCS;Natural gas to hydrogen w/o CCS;Natural gas to hydrogen w/ CCS;Biomass to hydrogen w/ CCS;Nuclear thermochemical hydrogen;Solar thermochemical hydrogen;Electrolysis Electrolysis;Coal to hydrogen w/o CCS;Coal to hydrogen w/ CCS;Natural gas to hydrogen w/o CCS;Natural gas to hydrogen w/ CCS;Biomass to hydrogen w/o CCS;Biomass to hydrogen w/ CCS Coal to hydrogen w/o CCS;Coal to hydrogen w/ CCS;Natural gas to hydrogen w/o CCS;Natural gas to hydrogen w/ CCS;Biomass to hydrogen w/o CCS;Solar thermochemical hydrogen;Electrolysis Coal to hydrogen w/o CCS;Coal to hydrogen w/ CCS;Natural gas to hydrogen w/o CCS;Natural gas to hydrogen w/ CCS;Oil to hydrogen w/o CCS;Oil to hydrogen w/ CCS;Biomass to hydrogen w/o CCS;Biomass to hydrogen w/ CCS;Electrolysis
Energy-Industry Steel production;Aluminium production;Cement production;Petrochemical production;Paper production;Plastics production;Pulp production (Iron and steel;Non-ferrous metals;Other Industries) Steel production;Aluminium production;Cement production;Petrochemical production;Paper production;Pulp production Steel production;Aluminium production;Cement production;Petrochemical production;Paper production;Plastics production;Pulp production Steel production;Aluminium production;Cement production;Petrochemical production;Paper production;Plastics production;Pulp production High temperature process;Low temperature process;Other electricity use;Other solid fuel use;Other liquid fuel use;Other gas fuel use Steel production;Aluminium production;Cement production;Petrochemical production;Paper production;Plastics production;Pulp production Steel production;Aluminium production;Cement production;Petrochemical production;Paper production;Plastics production;Pulp production Steel production;Cement production;Petrochemical production Steel production;Aluminium production;Cement production;Petrochemical production;Paper production;Plastics production;Pulp production Steel production Cement production;Petrochemical production;Plastics production Steel production;Aluminium production;Cement production;Petrochemical production;Paper production;Pulp production (Other: Equipment goods, Non-metalic minnerals, Consumer goods industries) Steel production;Aluminium production;Cement production;Petrochemical production;Paper production;Plastics production;Pulp production Steel production;Aluminium production;Cement production;Petrochemical production;Paper production;Plastics production;Pulp production Steel production;Cement production;Plastics production Steel production;Aluminium production;Cement production;Petrochemical production;Paper production;Plastics production;Pulp production Steel production;Aluminium production;Cement production;Petrochemical production;Paper production;Plastics production;Pulp production Steel production;Aluminium production;Cement production;Petrochemical production;Paper production;Pulp production (Chemicals;Glass;Textile;Fertilisers;Bricks) Paper production (Chemicals;Fertilisers;Iron and steel;Non-ferrous metals;Other Industries;Pulp and paper) Steel production;Cement production;Petrochemical production Steel production;Cement production Chemicals;Iron and steel;Non-ferrous metals;Other Industries;Non metals;Other non-specified Chemicals;Iron and steel;Pulp and paper;Non metals;Other Industries;Non-ferrous metals;Other non-energy;Other non-specified
Energy-Other grid and infrastructure Note: There is the option to make electricity and hydrogen infrastructure spatially explicit
Energy-Passenger transportation Passenger trains;Buses;Light Duty Vehicles (LDVs);Electric LDVs;Hydrogen LDVs;Hybrid LDVs;Gasoline LDVs;Diesel LDVs;Passenger aircrafts Passenger trains;Buses;Light Duty Vehicles (LDVs);Electric LDVs;Hydrogen LDVs;Hybrid LDVs;Gasoline LDVs;Diesel LDVs;Passenger aircrafts Passenger trains;Buses;Light Duty Vehicles (LDVs);Electric LDVs;Hybrid LDVs;Gasoline LDVs;Diesel LDVs;Passenger aircrafts Passenger trains;Buses;Light Duty Vehicles (LDVs);Electric LDVs;Gasoline LDVs;Diesel LDVs;Passenger aircrafts Passenger trains;Light Duty Vehicles (LDVs);Electric LDVs;Gasoline LDVs;Passenger aircrafts (Fuel-cell LDVs) Passenger trains;Buses;Light Duty Vehicles (LDVs);Electric LDVs;Hydrogen LDVs;Hybrid LDVs;Gasoline LDVs;Diesel LDVs;Passenger aircrafts Passenger trains;Buses;Light Duty Vehicles (LDVs);Electric LDVs;Hydrogen LDVs;Hybrid LDVs;Gasoline LDVs;Diesel LDVs;Passenger aircrafts Passenger trains;Buses;Light Duty Vehicles (LDVs);Electric LDVs;Hydrogen LDVs;Gasoline LDVs;Diesel LDVs;Passenger aircrafts Passenger trains;Buses;Light Duty Vehicles (LDVs);Electric LDVs;Hydrogen LDVs;Hybrid LDVs;Gasoline LDVs;Diesel LDVs;Passenger aircrafts Light Duty Vehicles (LDVs);Electric LDVs;Hybrid LDVs;Gasoline LDVs;Diesel LDVs (Gasoline Two-wheelers;LPG/CNG LDVs) Light Duty Vehicles (LDVs);Electric LDVs;Hydrogen LDVs;Hybrid LDVs;Gasoline LDVs Passenger trains;Buses;Light Duty Vehicles (LDVs);Electric LDVs;Hydrogen LDVs;Hybrid LDVs;Gasoline LDVs;Diesel LDVs;Passenger aircrafts (CNG Buses;CNG Three-wheelers;Diesel Three-wheelers;Electric Buses;Electric Three-wheelers;LPG/CNG LDVs) Buses;Electric LDVs;Hybrid LDVs;Gasoline LDVs;Passenger trains;Passenger aircrafts Passenger trains;Buses;Light Duty Vehicles (LDVs);Electric LDVs;Hybrid LDVs;Gasoline LDVs;Diesel LDVs;Passenger aircrafts Passenger trains;Buses;Light Duty Vehicles (LDVs);Electric LDVs;Hydrogen LDVs;Hybrid LDVs;Gasoline LDVs;Diesel LDVs;Passenger aircrafts Passenger trains;Buses;Light Duty Vehicles (LDVs);Electric LDVs;Hybrid LDVs;Gasoline LDVs;Diesel LDVs;Passenger aircrafts Buses;Light Duty Vehicles (LDVs);Electric LDVs;Hydrogen LDVs;Hybrid LDVs;Gasoline LDVs;Diesel LDVs;Passenger trains;Passenger aircrafts Passenger trains;Buses;Light Duty Vehicles (LDVs);Electric LDVs;Hydrogen LDVs;Hybrid LDVs;Gasoline LDVs;Diesel LDVs;Passenger aircrafts Passenger trains;Buses;Light Duty Vehicles (LDVs);Electric LDVs;Hydrogen LDVs;Hybrid LDVs;Gasoline LDVs;Diesel LDVs;Passenger aircrafts Passenger trains;Buses;Light Duty Vehicles (LDVs);Electric LDVs;Hydrogen LDVs;Hybrid LDVs;Gasoline LDVs;Diesel LDVs;Passenger aircrafts (Gasoline Two-wheelers;Electric Two-wheelers;Gasoline Three-Wheelers;Diesel Three-wheelers;CNG Three-wheelers;Electric Three-wheelers;CNG Buses;Electric Buses) Passenger trains;Buses;Light Duty Vehicles (LDVs);Electric LDVs;Hydrogen LDVs;Hybrid LDVs;Gasoline LDVs;Diesel LDVs;Passenger aircrafts Buses;Light Duty Vehicles (LDVs);Electric LDVs;Hydrogen LDVs;Hybrid LDVs;Gasoline LDVs;Diesel LDVs;Passenger trains;Passenger aircrafts Light Duty Vehicles (LDVs);Electric LDVs;Hydrogen LDVs;Hybrid LDVs;Gasoline LDVs;Diesel LDVs Light Duty Vehicles (LDVs);Electric LDVs;Hydrogen LDVs;Gasoline LDVs;Passenger trains Passenger trains;Buses;Light Duty Vehicles (LDVs);Electric LDVs;Hydrogen LDVs;Gasoline LDVs;Diesel LDVs;Passenger aircrafts Passenger trains;Buses;Light Duty Vehicles (LDVs);Electric LDVs;Hydrogen LDVs;Hybrid LDVs;Gasoline LDVs;Diesel LDVs;Passenger aircrafts Light Duty Vehicles (LDVs);Electric LDVs;Hybrid LDVs;Diesel LDVs
Energy-Refined gases Biomass to gas w/o CCS Oil to gas w/o CCS;Oil to gas w/ CCS;Biomass to gas w/o CCS;Biomass to gas w/ CCS Coal to gas w/o CCS;Coal to gas w/ CCS;Oil to gas w/o CCS;Oil to gas w/ CCS;Biomass to gas w/o CCS;Biomass to gas w/ CCS Coal to gas w/o CCS;Oil to gas w/o CCS;Biomass to gas w/o CCS Coal to gas w/o CCS Coal to gas w/o CCS;Coal to gas w/ CCS;Oil to gas w/o CCS;Oil to gas w/ CCS;Biomass to gas w/o CCS;Biomass to gas w/ CCS Coal to gas w/o CCS Biomass to gas w/o CCS;Biomass to gas w/ CCS Coal to gas w/o CCS;Coal to gas w/ CCS;Oil to gas w/o CCS;Oil to gas w/ CCS;Biomass to gas w/o CCS;Biomass to gas w/ CCS Coal to gas w/o CCS;Coal to gas w/ CCS;Oil to gas w/o CCS;Oil to gas w/ CCS;Biomass to gas w/o CCS;Biomass to gas w/ CCS Coal to gas w/o CCS;Oil to gas w/o CCS;Biomass to gas w/o CCS Coal to gas w/o CCS;Coal to gas w/ CCS;Biomass to gas w/o CCS;Biomass to gas w/ CCS Coal to gas w/o CCS;Coal to gas w/ CCS;Biomass to gas w/o CCS;Biomass to gas w/ CCS Coal to gas w/o CCS;Biomass to gas w/o CCS Coal to gas w/o CCS;Coal to gas w/ CCS;Biomass to gas w/o CCS;Biomass to gas w/ CCS Coal to gas w/o CCS;Coal to gas w/ CCS;Oil to gas w/o CCS;Oil to gas w/ CCS;Biomass to gas w/o CCS;Biomass to gas w/ CCS
Energy-Refined liquids Bioliquids w/o CCS;Oil refining Bioliquids w/o CCS;Bioliquids w/ CCS Coal to liquids w/o CCS;Bioliquids w/o CCS Gas to liquids w/o CCS;Gas to liquids w/ CCS;Bioliquids w/o CCS;Bioliquids w/ CCS;Oil refining Coal to liquids w/o CCS;Coal to liquids w/ CCS;Gas to liquids w/o CCS;Gas to liquids w/ CCS;Bioliquids w/o CCS;Bioliquids w/ CCS;Oil refining Coal to liquids w/o CCS;Coal to liquids w/ CCS;Bioliquids w/o CCS;Oil refining Coal to liquids w/o CCS;Gas to liquids w/o CCS;Bioliquids w/o CCS;Bioliquids w/ CCS;Oil refining Coal to liquids w/o CCS;Coal to liquids w/ CCS;Gas to liquids w/o CCS;Gas to liquids w/ CCS;Bioliquids w/o CCS;Bioliquids w/ CCS;Oil refining Oil refining Coal to liquids w/o CCS;Coal to liquids w/ CCS;Bioliquids w/o CCS;Oil refining Coal to liquids w/o CCS;Coal to liquids w/ CCS;Gas to liquids w/o CCS;Gas to liquids w/ CCS;Bioliquids w/o CCS;Bioliquids w/ CCS;Oil refining Coal to liquids w/o CCS;Coal to liquids w/ CCS;Bioliquids w/o CCS;Oil refining Bioliquids w/o CCS;Bioliquids w/ CCS;Oil refining Coal to liquids w/o CCS;Coal to liquids w/ CCS;Gas to liquids w/o CCS;Gas to liquids w/ CCS;Bioliquids w/o CCS;Bioliquids w/ CCS;Oil refining Coal to liquids w/o CCS;Coal to liquids w/ CCS;Gas to liquids w/o CCS;Gas to liquids w/ CCS;Bioliquids w/o CCS;Bioliquids w/ CCS;Oil refining Coal to liquids w/o CCS;Gas to liquids w/o CCS;Bioliquids w/o CCS;Oil refining Oil refining Bioliquids w/o CCS;Bioliquids w/ CCS;Coal to liquids w/o CCS;Coal to liquids w/ CCS;Gas to liquids w/o CCS;Gas to liquids w/ CCS;Oil refining Coal to liquids w/o CCS;Coal to liquids w/ CCS;Gas to liquids w/o CCS;Gas to liquids w/ CCS;Bioliquids w/o CCS;Bioliquids w/ CCS;Oil refining Bioliquids w/o CCS;Bioliquids w/ CCS;Coal to liquids w/o CCS;Coal to liquids w/ CCS;Gas to liquids w/o CCS;Gas to liquids w/ CCS;Oil refining Coal to liquids w/o CCS;Coal to liquids w/ CCS;Gas to liquids w/o CCS;Gas to liquids w/ CCS;Bioliquids w/o CCS;Bioliquids w/ CCS;Oil refining Bioliquids w/o CCS;Bioliquids w/ CCS;Coal to liquids w/o CCS;Coal to liquids w/ CCS;Oil refining Coal to liquids w/o CCS;Coal to liquids w/ CCS;Gas to liquids w/o CCS;Gas to liquids w/ CCS;Bioliquids w/o CCS;Bioliquids w/ CCS;Oil refining Coal to liquids w/o CCS;Coal to liquids w/ CCS;Gas to liquids w/o CCS;Gas to liquids w/ CCS;Bioliquids w/o CCS;Bioliquids w/ CCS;Oil refining
Energy-Residential and commercial Space cooling;Cooking;Refrigeration;Washing;Lighting Space heating;Space cooling;Cooking;Lighting Cooking;Space heating Space cooling;Cooking;Refrigeration;Washing;Lighting Space heating;Space cooling;Cooking;Refrigeration;Washing Space heating;Space cooling;Cooking (Water heating;Other) Space heating;Space cooling;Cooking;Refrigeration;Washing;Lighting Space heating;Space cooling;Cooking;Lighting Space heating;Space cooling;Cooking;Refrigeration;Washing;Lighting Space heating;Space cooling;Cooking;Refrigeration;Washing;Lighting Space heating (Water heating) Space heating;Space cooling;Cooking;Refrigeration;Washing;Lighting (Other electrical uses;Water heating) Cooking;Space heating Space heating;Space cooling;Cooking;Refrigeration;Washing;Lighting Cooking;Refrigeration;Washing;Lighting;Space heating;Space cooling Space heating;Space cooling;Cooking;Refrigeration;Washing;Lighting Space heating;Space cooling;Cooking;Refrigeration;Washing;Lighting Space cooling;Cooking;Refrigeration;Lighting (Water heating) Space heating;Space cooling;Cooking;Lighting (Appliance) Cooking;Space heating Space heating;Space cooling;Cooking;Refrigeration;Washing;Lighting Cooking;Space heating;Space cooling Space heating;Space cooling;Cooking;Lighting Space heating;Space cooling;Cooking (Other electrical uses) Space heating;Space cooling;Cooking;Refrigeration;Washing;Lighting (Water heating;Clothes drying;Other electrical uses;Other non-electrical uses)
Land-use-Agricultural commodities Wheat;Rice;Oilseeds;Other coarse grains;Sugar crops;Ruminant meat;Non-ruminant meat and eggs;Dairy products Wheat;Rice;Other coarse grains;Oilseeds;Sugar crops Rice;Sugar crops;Ruminant meat;Non-ruminant meat and eggs;Dairy products Cereal;Other crops;Roots;Sugarcane;Meat Wheat;Rice;Other coarse grains;Oilseeds;Sugar crops;Ruminant meat;Non-ruminant meat and eggs;Dairy products Wheat;Rice;Oilseeds;Sugar crops;Ruminant meat;Non-ruminant meat and eggs;Dairy products Wheat;Rice;Other coarse grains;Oilseeds;Sugar crops;Ruminant meat;Non-ruminant meat and eggs;Dairy products Wheat;Rice;Other coarse grains;Oilseeds;Sugar crops;Ruminant meat;Non-ruminant meat and eggs;Dairy products Oilseeds Wheat;Rice;Other coarse grains;Oilseeds;Sugar crops;Dairy products Wheat;Rice;Other coarse grains;Oilseeds;Sugar crops;Ruminant meat;Non-ruminant meat and eggs;Dairy products Wheat;Rice;Other coarse grains;Oilseeds;Sugar crops Wheat;Rice;Oilseeds;Other coarse grains;Sugar crops;Ruminant meat;Non-ruminant meat and eggs;Dairy products Wheat;Rice;Ruminant meat Wheat;Rice;Oilseeds;Other coarse grains;Sugar crops;Ruminant meat;Non-ruminant meat and eggs;Dairy products
Land-use-Agriculture and forestry demands Agriculture food;Agriculture food crops;Agriculture food livestock;Agriculture feed;Agriculture feed crops;Agriculture feed livestock;Agriculture non-food;Agriculture non-food crops;Agriculture non-food livestock;Agriculture bioenergy Agriculture food;Agriculture food crops;Agriculture food livestock;Agriculture feed;Agriculture feed crops;Agriculture feed livestock;Agriculture non-food;Agriculture non-food crops;Agriculture non-food livestock;Agriculture bioenergy;Agriculture residues;Forest industrial roundwood;Forest fuelwood;Forest residues Agriculture food;Agriculture food crops;Agriculture food livestock;Agriculture feed;Agriculture feed crops;Agriculture feed livestock;Agriculture non-food;Agriculture non-food crops;Agriculture non-food livestock;Agriculture bioenergy;Agriculture residues;Forest industrial roundwood;Forest residues Agriculture food;Agriculture food crops;Agriculture food livestock;Agriculture feed;Agriculture feed crops;Agriculture feed livestock;Agriculture non-food;Agriculture non-food crops;Agriculture non-food livestock;Agriculture bioenergy;Agriculture residues;Forest industrial roundwood;Forest fuelwood;Forest residues Agriculture food;Agriculture food crops;Agriculture food livestock;Agriculture feed;Agriculture feed crops;Agriculture feed livestock;Agriculture non-food;Agriculture non-food crops;Agriculture non-food livestock;Agriculture bioenergy;Agriculture residues;Forest fuelwood;Forest residues Agriculture food crops;Agriculture food livestock;Agriculture food Agriculture food crops;Agriculture food livestock;Agriculture feed crops;Agriculture non-food crops;Agriculture bioenergy;Agriculture residues;Forest fuelwood Agriculture food Agriculture food;Agriculture feed livestock;Agriculture bioenergy;Agriculture residues Agriculture food;Agriculture food crops;Agriculture food livestock;Agriculture feed;Agriculture feed crops;Agriculture feed livestock;Agriculture non-food;Agriculture non-food crops;Agriculture non-food livestock;Agriculture bioenergy;Agriculture residues;Forest industrial roundwood;Forest fuelwood;Forest residues Agriculture food Agriculture food;Agriculture food crops;Agriculture feed;Agriculture feed crops Agriculture food;Agriculture food crops;Agriculture food livestock;Agriculture feed crops;Agriculture feed livestock;Agriculture non-food;Agriculture non-food crops;Agriculture non-food livestock;Agriculture bioenergy;Agriculture residues;Forest industrial roundwood;Forest fuelwood;Forest residues Agriculture food;Agriculture feed;Agriculture bioenergy;Forest fuelwood Agriculture bioenergy;Agriculture residues;Forest fuelwood;Forest residues Agriculture food;Agriculture food crops;Agriculture food livestock;Agriculture bioenergy;Agriculture residues;Forest industrial roundwood;Forest residues Agriculture food;Agriculture food crops;Agriculture feed crops;Agriculture bioenergy;Forest industrial roundwood;Forest fuelwood;Forest residues Agriculture food;Agriculture food crops;Agriculture food livestock;Agriculture feed;Agriculture feed crops;Agriculture feed livestock;Agriculture non-food;Agriculture non-food crops;Agriculture non-food livestock;Agriculture bioenergy;Agriculture residues
Land-use-Land cover Cropland;Forest;Pasture;Shrubland;Cropland energy crops;Managed forest;Natural forest Cropland;Cropland energy crops;Forest;Managed forest;Natural forest;Pasture;Shrubland;Built-up area Cropland;Cropland irrigated;Cropland food crops;Cropland feed crops;Forest;Managed forest;Natural forest;Built-up area Cropland;Cropland food crops;Cropland feed crops;Cropland energy crops;Forest;Managed forest;Natural forest;Pasture (Other) Cropland;Cropland energy crops;Forest;Managed forest;Natural forest;Pasture (Pasture HighCapacity;Pasture LowCapacity;IntegratedSystems;DoubleCrop;ILPF) Cropland;Forest;Cropland irrigated;Cropland food crops;Cropland feed crops;Pasture;Built-up area Cropland;Forest;Pasture Cropland;Cropland energy crops;Forest;Managed forest;Natural forest;Pasture Cropland;Cropland irrigated;Cropland food crops;Cropland feed crops;Cropland energy crops;Forest;Managed forest;Natural forest;Pasture;Shrubland;Built-up area Cropland;Forest Cropland;Cropland food crops;Managed forest Cropland;Cropland irrigated;Cropland food crops;Cropland feed crops;Cropland energy crops Cropland;Forest;Pasture;Shrubland;Cropland irrigated;Cropland food crops;Cropland feed crops;Cropland energy crops;Managed forest;Natural forest;Built-up area Cropland;Forest;Pasture;Built-up area Cropland food crops;Cropland energy crops;Managed forest;Natural forest;Pasture Cropland;Forest;Pasture;Cropland irrigated;Cropland food crops;Cropland feed crops;Managed forest;Natural forest;Built-up area Cropland;Forest;Pasture;Cropland irrigated;Cropland food crops;Cropland feed crops;Cropland energy crops;Managed forest;Natural forest;Built-up area Cropland;Forest;Pasture;Cropland irrigated
Emission, climate and impacts-Carbon dioxide removal Bioenergy with CCS;Reforestation;Afforestation;Soil carbon enhancement Bioenergy with CCS Bioenergy with CCS;Reforestation;Afforestation Bioenergy with CCS;Reforestation Reforestation Bioenergy with CCS;Direct air capture Bioenergy with CCS;Reforestation;Afforestation;Soil carbon enhancement;Direct air capture Bioenergy with CCS Bioenergy with CCS;Reforestation;Afforestation;Direct air capture Bioenergy with CCS Bioenergy with CCS Bioenergy with CCS;Reforestation;Afforestation Bioenergy with CCS;Reforestation;Afforestation Bioenergy with CCS;Afforestation;Direct air capture Bioenergy with CCS Bioenergy with CCS Bioenergy with CCS Bioenergy with CCS;Reforestation;Afforestation Bioenergy with CCS Bioenergy with CCS;Reforestation;Afforestation;Direct air capture Bioenergy with CCS;Reforestation;Afforestation Bioenergy with CCS Bioenergy with CCS;Reforestation;Afforestation Bioenergy with CCS;Direct air capture Bioenergy with CCS;Afforestation;Direct air capture;Enhanced weathering Bioenergy with CCS;Reforestation;Afforestation;Direct air capture Bioenergy with CCS;Reforestation;Afforestation;Direct air capture Bioenergy with CCS;Reforestation;Afforestation;Direct air capture
Emission, climate and impacts-Climate change impacts Agriculture Agriculture;Energy supply;Energy demand;Economic output;Built capital;Inequality Agriculture;Energy supply;Energy demand;Economic output;Built capital;Inequality Agriculture;Energy demand;Economic output;Inequality;Energy supply Agriculture;Economic output Agriculture;Energy demand Agriculture;Energy supply;Energy demand;Economic output;Built capital;Inequality (Extreme events;labor productivity) Energy supply;Energy demand;Economic output;Built capital Agriculture;Inequality;Energy supply;Energy demand Economic output Energy demand Economic output
Emission, climate and impacts-Climate indicators Temperature change;Ocean acidification;Concentration: CH4;Concentration: N2O;Concentration: Kyoto gases;Radiative forcing: CO2;Radiative forcing: CH4;Radiative forcing: N2O;Radiative forcing: F-gases;Radiative forcing: Kyoto gases;Radiative forcing: aerosols;Radiative forcing: land albedo;Radiative forcing: AN3A;Radiative forcing: total;Sea level rise Concentration: Kyoto gases Concentration: CO2 Concentration: CO2;Concentration: CH4;Concentration: N2O;Radiative forcing: CO2;Radiative forcing: CH4;Radiative forcing: N2O;Radiative forcing: total;Temperature change Concentration: CO2;Concentration: CH4;Concentration: N2O;Concentration: Kyoto gases;Radiative forcing: CO2;Radiative forcing: CH4;Radiative forcing: N2O;Radiative forcing: F-gases;Radiative forcing: Kyoto gases;Radiative forcing: aerosols;Radiative forcing: total;Temperature change;Sea level rise;Ocean acidification Concentration: CO2;Concentration: CH4;Concentration: N2O;Concentration: Kyoto gases;Radiative forcing: CO2;Radiative forcing: CH4;Radiative forcing: N2O;Radiative forcing: F-gases;Radiative forcing: Kyoto gases;Radiative forcing: aerosols;Radiative forcing: land albedo;Radiative forcing: AN3A;Radiative forcing: total;Temperature change;Sea level rise;Ocean acidification (Radiative Forcing (Land Albedo) - Yes (exogenous)) CO2e concentration (ppm);Temperature change (°C) (Precipitation change) Concentration: CO2 Temperature change;Concentration: CO2;Concentration: CH4;Concentration: N2O;Concentration: Kyoto gases;Radiative forcing: CO2;Radiative forcing: CH4;Radiative forcing: N2O;Radiative forcing: F-gases;Radiative forcing: Kyoto gases;Radiative forcing: aerosols;Radiative forcing: land albedo;Radiative forcing: AN3A;Radiative forcing: total;Sea level rise Concentration: CO2;Concentration: CH4;Concentration: N2O Concentration: CO2 Temperature change;Ocean acidification;Concentration: CO2;Concentration: CH4;Concentration: N2O;Concentration: Kyoto gases;Radiative forcing: CO2;Radiative forcing: CH4;Radiative forcing: N2O;Radiative forcing: F-gases;Radiative forcing: Kyoto gases;Radiative forcing: aerosols;Radiative forcing: land albedo;Radiative forcing: AN3A;Radiative forcing: total;Sea level rise Concentration: CO2;Concentration: CH4;Concentration: N2O;Concentration: Kyoto gases Temperature change;Concentration: CO2;Concentration: CH4;Concentration: N2O;Concentration: Kyoto gases;Radiative forcing: CO2;Radiative forcing: CH4;Radiative forcing: N2O;Radiative forcing: F-gases;Radiative forcing: Kyoto gases;Radiative forcing: aerosols;Radiative forcing: AN3A;Radiative forcing: total (Radiative Forcing (Land Albedo) - Yes (exogenous)) Radiative forcing: CO2;Radiative forcing: CH4;Radiative forcing: N2O Concentration: CO2;Concentration: CH4;Concentration: N2O;Radiative forcing: CO2;Radiative forcing: CH4;Radiative forcing: N2O;Radiative forcing: total;Temperature change Temperature change;Concentration: CO2;Concentration: CH4;Concentration: N2O;Concentration: Kyoto gases;Radiative forcing: CO2;Radiative forcing: CH4;Radiative forcing: N2O;Radiative forcing: F-gases;Radiative forcing: Kyoto gases;Radiative forcing: aerosols;Radiative forcing: land albedo;Radiative forcing: AN3A;Radiative forcing: total
Emission, climate and impacts-Co-Linkages Energy access: Household energy consumption;Air pollution & health: Health impacts of air Pollution;Food access;Water availability Energy security: Fossil fuel imports & exports (region) Energy security: Fossil fuel imports & exports (region);Air pollution & health: Source-based aerosol emissions;Food access;Biodiversity Energy security: Fossil fuel imports & exports (region);Energy access: Household energy consumption;Water availability Energy security: Fossil fuel imports & exports (region);Energy access: Household energy consumption;Air pollution & health: Health impacts of air Pollution Energy security: Fossil fuel imports & exports (region);Energy access: Household energy consumption;Air pollution & health: Source-based aerosol emissions;Food access;Water availability Energy security: Fossil fuel imports & exports (region);Energy access: Household energy consumption Energy security: Fossil fuel imports & exports (region);Energy access: Household energy consumption Energy security: Fossil fuel imports & exports (region);Air pollution & health: Health impacts of air Pollution Energy security: Fossil fuel imports & exports (region);Air pollution & health: Health impacts of air Pollution;Water availability Energy security: Fossil fuel imports & exports (region);Energy access: Household energy consumption;Air pollution & health: Source-based aerosol emissions;Food access;Water availability Energy access: Household energy consumption Energy security: Fossil fuel imports & exports (region);Energy access: Household energy consumption;Air pollution & health: Source-based aerosol emissions;Air pollution & health: Health impacts of air Pollution Energy security: Fossil fuel imports & exports (region);Energy access: Household energy consumption;Air pollution & health: Source-based aerosol emissions Energy security: Fossil fuel imports & exports (region);Energy access: Household energy consumption Energy security: Fossil fuel imports & exports (region);Energy access: Household energy consumption;Air pollution & health: Source-based aerosol emissions Biodiversity;Energy security: Fossil fuel imports & exports (region);Energy access: Household energy consumption;Air pollution & health: Source-based aerosol emissions;Air pollution & health: Health impacts of air Pollution Energy security: Fossil fuel imports & exports (region);Energy access: Household energy consumption Energy security: Fossil fuel imports & exports (region);Energy access: Household energy consumption Energy security: Fossil fuel imports & exports (region);Energy access: Household energy consumption;Air pollution & health: Source-based aerosol emissions;Air pollution & health: Health impacts of air Pollution Energy security: Fossil fuel imports & exports (region);Energy access: Household energy consumption;Air pollution & health: Source-based aerosol emissions Energy security: Fossil fuel imports & exports (region);Energy access: Household energy consumption Energy security: Fossil fuel imports & exports (region);Water availability Energy security: Fossil fuel imports & exports (region);Energy access: Household energy consumption Air pollution & health: Source-based aerosol emissions;Air pollution & health: Health impacts of air Pollution
Emission, climate and impacts-Greenhouse gases CO2 fossil fuels;CO2 cement;CO2 land use CO2 fossil fuels;CO2 cement;CH4 energy;CH4 other;N2O energy;N2O other;CFCs;HFCs;SF6;PFCs HFCs;CFCs;SF6;CO2 fossil fuels;CO2 cement;CO2 land use;CH4 energy;CH4 land use;CH4 other;N2O energy;N2O land use;N2O other CO2 fossil fuels;CO2 cement;CO2 land use;CH4 energy;CH4 land use;CH4 other;N2O energy;N2O land use;N2O other;CFCs;HFCs;SF6;PFCs CO2 fossil fuels;CO2 cement;CO2 land use;CH4 energy;CH4 land use;CH4 other;N2O energy;N2O land use;N2O other;CFCs;HFCs;SF6;PFCs CO2 fossil fuels;CO2 land use (CO2 industrial processes) CO2 fossil fuels;CO2 cement;CO2 land use;CH4 energy;CH4 land use;CH4 other;N2O energy;N2O land use;N2O other CO2 fossil fuels;CO2 cement;CH4 energy;CH4 other;N2O energy;N2O other;CO2 land use CO2 fossil fuels;CO2 cement;CO2 land use;CH4 energy;CH4 land use;CH4 other;N2O energy;N2O land use;N2O other CO2 fossil fuels CO2 fossil fuels;CO2 cement;CH4 energy;CH4 other;N2O energy;N2O other;CFCs;HFCs;SF6;PFCs CO2 fossil fuels;CO2 cement;CO2 land use;CH4 energy;CH4 land use;CH4 other;N2O energy;N2O land use;N2O other;CFCs;HFCs;SF6;PFCs CO2 fossil fuels;CO2 cement;CO2 land use;CH4 energy;CH4 land use;CH4 other;N2O energy;N2O land use;N2O other;CFCs;HFCs;SF6;PFCs HFCs;SF6;CO2 fossil fuels;CH4 energy;CH4 other;N2O energy;N2O other CO2 fossil fuels;CH4 energy;N2O energy;SF6 CO2 fossil fuels CO2 CO2 fossil fuels CO2 fossil fuels;CO2 cement;CO2 land use CO2 fossil fuels HFCs;CFCs;SF6;PFCs;CO2 fossil fuels;CO2 cement;CO2 land use;CH4 energy;CH4 land use;CH4 other;N2O energy;N2O land use;N2O other CO2 fossil fuels;CO2 cement;CH4 energy;N2O energy;CFCs;HFCs;SF6;PFCs CO2 fossil fuels;CO2 cement;CO2 land use;CH4 energy;CH4 land use;CH4 other;N2O energy;N2O land use;N2O other;CFCs;HFCs;SF6;PFCs CO2 CO2 fossil fuels;CO2 cement;CH4 energy;N2O energy CO2 fossil fuels HFCs;CFCs;SF6;CO2 fossil fuels;CO2 cement;CO2 land use;CH4 energy;CH4 land use;CH4 other;N2O energy;N2O land use;N2O other CO2 fossil fuels;CO2 cement;CO2 land use;CH4 energy;CH4 land use;N2O energy;N2O land use HFCs;CFCs;SF6;PFCs;CO2 fossil fuels;CO2 cement;CO2 land use;CH4 energy;CH4 other;N2O energy;N2O land use;N2O other CO2 fossil fuels;CO2 cement;CH4 energy;N2O energy HFCs;CFCs;SF6;CO2 fossil fuels;CO2 cement;CO2 land use;CH4 energy;CH4 land use;CH4 other;N2O energy;N2O land use;N2O other CO2 fossil fuels;CO2 land use;CH4 energy;CH4 land use;CH4 other;N2O energy;N2O land use;N2O other CO2 fossil fuels;CO2 cement;CO2 land use;CH4 energy;CH4 land use;CH4 other;N2O energy;N2O land use;N2O other;CFCs;HFCs;SF6;PFCs HFCs;CO2 fossil fuels;CO2 land use;CH4 energy;CH4 land use;CH4 other;N2O energy;N2O land use;N2O other
Emission, climate and impacts-Pollutants CO energy;CO land use;CO other;NOx energy;NOx land use;NOx other;VOC energy;VOC land use;VOC other;SO2 energy;SO2 land use;SO2 other;BC energy;BC land use;BC other;OC energy;OC land use;OC other;NH3 energy;NH3 land use;NH3 other CO other;CO energy;CO land use;NOx energy;NOx land use;NOx other;VOC energy;VOC land use;VOC other;SO2 energy;SO2 land use;SO2 other;BC energy;BC land use;BC other;OC energy;OC land use;OC other;NH3 energy;NH3 land use;NH3 other CO other NOx energy;NOx land use;NOx other;SO2 energy;SO2 land use;SO2 other (PM energy;PM land use;PM other) CO energy;CO other;NOx energy;NOx other;VOC energy;VOC other;SO2 energy;SO2 other;BC energy;BC other;OC energy;OC other;NH3 energy;NH3 other SO2 energy;SO2 land use NOx energy;SO2 energy CO energy;CO other;NOx energy;NOx other;VOC energy;VOC other;SO2 energy;SO2 other;BC energy;BC other;NH3 energy;NH3 other (PM energy;PM other) CO energy;CO land use;CO other;NOx energy;NOx land use;NOx other;VOC energy;VOC land use;VOC other;SO2 land use;SO2 other;BC energy;BC land use;BC other;OC energy;OC land use;OC other;NH3 energy;NH3 land use;NH3 other CO energy;CO land use;CO other;NOx energy;NOx land use;NOx other;VOC energy;VOC land use;VOC other;SO2 energy;SO2 land use;SO2 other;BC energy;BC land use;BC other;OC energy;OC land use;OC other;NH3 energy;NH3 land use;NH3 other CO energy;NOx energy;SO2 energy;BC energy;NH3 energy CO energy;CO land use;CO other;NOx energy;NOx land use;NOx other;VOC energy;VOC land use;VOC other;SO2 energy;SO2 land use;SO2 other;BC energy;BC land use;BC other;OC energy;OC land use;OC other;NH3 energy;NH3 land use;NH3 other CO energy;NOx energy;VOC energy;SO2 energy;BC energy;OC energy;NH3 energy CO energy;CO land use;CO other;NOx energy;NOx land use;NOx other;VOC energy;VOC land use;VOC other;SO2 energy;SO2 land use;SO2 other;BC energy;BC land use;BC other;OC energy;OC land use;OC other CO energy;CO land use;CO other;NOx energy;NOx other;VOC energy;VOC land use;VOC other;SO2 energy;SO2 land use;SO2 other;BC energy;BC land use;BC other;OC energy;OC land use;OC other;NH3 energy;NH3 land use;NH3 other CO energy;CO land use;CO other;NOx energy;NOx land use;NOx other;VOC energy;VOC land use;VOC other;SO2 energy;SO2 land use;SO2 other;BC energy;BC land use;BC other;NH3 energy;NH3 land use;NH3 other CO energy;CO land use;CO other;NOx energy;NOx land use;NOx other;VOC energy;VOC land use;VOC other;SO2 energy;SO2 land use;SO2 other;BC energy;BC land use;BC other;OC energy;OC land use;OC other;NH3 energy;NH3 land use CO energy;CO land use;CO other;NOx energy;NOx land use;NOx other;VOC energy;VOC land use;VOC other;SO2 energy;SO2 land use;SO2 other;BC energy;BC land use;BC other;OC energy;OC land use;OC other;NH3 energy;NH3 land use;NH3 other

End table