Pollutants and non-GHG forcing agents - REMIND

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Model Documentation - REMIND
Corresponding documentation
Model information
Institution Potsdam Institut für Klimafolgenforschung (PIK)
Concept Hybrid

Hybrid model that couples an economic growth model with a detailed energy system model and a simple climate model.

Solution method Inter-temporal optimization that maximizes cumulated discounted global welfare: Ramsey-type growth model with Negishi approach to regional welfare aggregation.
Anticipation Perfect Foresight

REMIND calculates emissions of aerosols and ozone precursors (SO2, BC, OC, NOx, CO, VOC, NH3). It accounts for these emissions with different levels of detail depending on sources and species.

For pollutant emissions of SO2, BC, OC, NOx, CO, VOC and NH3 related to the combustion of fossil fuels, REMIND considers time- and region-specific emissions factors coupled to model-endogenous activity data. BC and OC emissions in 2005 are calibrated to the GAINS model (Klimont et al. in prep.a; Amann et al. 2011). All other emissions from fuel combustion in 2005 are calibrated to EDGAR [1]. Emission factors for SO2, BC, and OC are assumed to decline over time according to air pollution policies based on Klimont et al. (in prep.b). Current near-term policies are enforced in high-income countries, with gradual strengthening of goals over time and gradual technology RDD&D. Low-income countries do not fully implement near-term policies, but gradually improve over the century.

Emissions from international shipping and aviation and waste of all species are exogenous and taken from Fujino [2]. Further, REMIND uses landuse emissions from the MAgPIE model, which in turn are based on emission factors from van der Werf [3]. Other emissions are exogenous and are taken from the RCP scenarios [4].


















  1. EDGAR (2011) Global Emissions EDGAR v4.2. http://edgar.jrc.ec.europa.eu/overview.php?v=42. Accessed 25 Jan 2013
  2. Fujino et al. (2006)
  3. Werf et al. (2010)
  4. Van Vuuren D, Stehfest E, Gernaat DEHJ, et al (under review) Energy, land-use and greenhouse gas emissions trajectories under a green growth paradigm