Reference card - IMACLIM

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The reference card is a clearly defined description of model features. The numerous options have been organized into a limited amount of default and model specific (non default) options. In addition some features are described by a short clarifying text.


  • not implemented
  • implemented
  • implemented (not default option)


Name and version


Institution and users

Centre international de recherche sur l'environnement et le développement (CIRED), France,
Societe de Mathematiques Appliquees et de Sciences Humaines (SMASH), France,


IMACLIM documentation consists of a referencecard and detailed model documentation

Model scope and methods

Model documentation: Model scope and methods - IMACLIM


Imaclim-R is intended to study the interactions between energy systems and the economy, to assess the feasibility of low carbon development strategies and the transition pathway towards low carbon future.


Hybrid: general equilibrium with technology explicit modules. Recursive dynamics: each year the equilibrium is solved (system of non-linear equations), in between two years parameters to the equilibrium evolve according to specified functions.

Solution method

Imaclim-R is implemented in Scilab, and uses the fonction fsolve from a shared C++ library to solve the static equilibrium system of non-linear equations.


Recursive dynamics: each year the equilibrium is solved (system of non-linear equations), in between two years parameters to the equilibrium evolve according to specified functions.

Temporal dimension

Base year:2001, time steps:Annual, horizon: 2050 or 2100

Spatial dimension

Number of regions:12

  1. USA
  2. Canada
  3. Europe
  4. China
  5. India
  6. Brazil
  7. Middle East
  8. Africa
  9. Commonwealth of Independant States
  10. OECD Pacific
  11. Rest of Asia
  12. Rest of Latin Amercia

Policy implementation

Baseline do not include explicit climate policies. Climate/energy policies can be implemented in a number of ways, depending on the policy. A number of general or specific policy choices can be modelled including: Emissions or energy taxes, permit trading, specific technology subsidies, regulations, technology and/or resource constraints

Socio economic drivers

Model documentation: Socio-economic drivers - IMACLIM

Exogenous drivers

  • Exogenous GDP
  • Total Factor Productivity
  • Labour Productivity
  • Capital Technical progress
  • Energy Technical progress
  • Materials Technical progress
  • GDP per capita
  • Population
  • Active Population

Note: Our model growth engine is composed of exogenous trends of active population growth and exogenous trends of labour productivity growth. The two sets of assumptions on demography and labour productivity, although exogenous, only prescribe natural growth. Effective growth results endogenously from the interaction of these driving forces with short-term constraints: (i) available capital flows for investments and (ii) rigidities, such as fixed technologies, immobility of the installed capital across sectors or rigidities in real wages, which may lead to partial utilization of production factors (labor and capital).


  • GDP per capita
  • Income distribution in a region
  • Urbanisation rate
  • Education level
  • Labour participation rate

Macro economy

Model documentation: Macro-economy - IMACLIM

Economic sectors

  • Agriculture
  • Industry
  • Energy
  • Transport
  • Services
  • Construction

Note: The energy sector is divided into five sub-sectors: oil extraction, gas extraction, coal extraction, refinery, power generation. The transport sector is divided into three sub-sectors: terrestrial transport, air transport, water transport. The industry sector has one sub-sector: Energy intensive industry.

Cost measures

  • GDP loss
  • Welfare loss
  • Consumption loss
  • Area under MAC
  • Energy system costs


  • Coal
  • Oil
  • Gas
  • Uranium
  • Electricity
  • Bioenergy crops
  • Food crops
  • Capital
  • Emissions permits
  • Non-energy goods
  • Refined Liquid Fuels


Model documentation: Energy - IMACLIM


Price response (via elasticities), and non-price drivers (infrastructure and urban forms conditioning location choices, different asymptotes on industrial goods consumption saturation levels with income rise, speed of personal vehicle ownership rate increase, speed of residential area increase).

Resource use

  • Coal
  • Oil
  • Gas
  • Uranium
  • Biomass

Electricity technologies

  • Coal
  • Gas
  • Oil
  • Nuclear
  • Biomass
  • Wind
  • Solar PV
  • CCS

Conversion technologies

  • CHP
  • Heat pumps
  • Hydrogen
  • Fuel to gas
  • Fuel to liquid

Grid and infrastructure

  • Electricity
  • Gas
  • Heat
  • CO2
  • H2

Energy technology substitution

  • Discrete technology choices
  • Expansion and decline constraints
  • System integration constraints

Energy service sectors

  • Transportation
  • Industry
  • Residential and commercial
  • Agriculture


Model documentation: Land-use - IMACLIM; Non-climate sustainability dimension - IMACLIM


  • Cropland
  • Forest
  • Extensive Pastures
  • Intensive Pastures
  • Inacessible Pastures
  • Urban Areas
  • Unproductive Land

Note: Bioenergy production is determined by the fuel and electricity modules of Imaclim-R using supply curves from Hoogwijk et al. (2009) (bioelectricity) and IEA (biofuel). Bioenergy production is then exogenously incorporated into the land-use module. The demand for biofuel is aggregated to the demand for food crops, while the production of biomass for electricity is located on marginal lands (i.e., less fertile or accessible lands). By increasing the demand for land, and spurring agricultural intensification, Bioenergy propels land and food prices.

Other resources

Model documentation: Non-climate sustainability dimension - IMACLIM

Other resources

  • Water
  • Metals
  • Cement

Emissions and climate

Model documentation: Emissions - IMACLIM; Climate - IMACLIM

Green house gasses

  • CO2
  • CH4
  • N2O
  • HFCs
  • CFCs
  • SF6

Note: The non-CO2 forcing agents that are not explicitly tracked are represented in the climate module by an exogenously given additional forcing factor.


  • NOx
  • SOx
  • BC
  • OC
  • Ozone

Climate indicators

  • CO2e concentration (ppm)
  • Climate damages $ or equivalent
  • Radiative Forcing (W/m2 )
  • Temperature change (°C)