Reference card - MESSAGE-GLOBIOM

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The reference card is a clearly defined description of model features. The numerous options have been organized into a limited amount of default and model specific (non default) options. In addition some features are described by a short clarifying text.


  • not implemented
  • implemented
  • implemented (not default option)


Name and version


Institution and users

International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Austria,
main users: IIASA, the MESSAGE model is distributed via the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to member countries


MESSAGE-GLOBIOM documentation consists of a referencecard and detailed model documentation

Model scope and methods

Model documentation: Model scope and methods - MESSAGE-GLOBIOM


MESSAGE-GLOBIOM is an integrated assessment framework designed to assess the transformation of the energy and land systems vis-a-vis the challenges of climate change and other sustainability issues. It consists of the energy model MESSAGE, the land use model GLOBIOM, the air pollution and GHG model GAINS, the aggregated macro-economic model MACRO and the simple climate model MAGICC.


Hybrid model (energy engineering and land use partial equilibrium models soft-linked to macro-economic general equilibrium model)

Solution method

Hybrid model (linear program optimization for the energy systems and land-use modules, non-linear program optimization for the macro-economic module)


Myopic/Perfect Foresight (MESSAGE can be run both with perfect foresight and myopically, while GLOBIOM runs myopically)

Temporal dimension

Base year:2010, time steps:1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010, 2020, 2030, 2040, 2050, 2060, 2070, 2080, 2090, 2100, 2110, horizon: 1990-2110

Note: From 1990 to 2010 MESSAGE employs 5-year time steps with 10-year steps employed thereafter

Spatial dimension

Number of regions:11+1

  1. AFR (Sub-Saharan Africa)
  2. CPA (Centrally Planned Asia & China)
  3. EEU (Eastern Europe)
  4. FSU (Former Soviet Union)
  5. LAM (Latin America and the Carribean)
  6. MEA (Middle East and North Africa)
  7. NAM (North America)
  8. PAO (Pacific OECD)
  9. PAS (Other Pacific Asia)
  10. SAS (South Asia)
  11. WEU (Western Europe)
  12. GLB (international shipping)

Policy implementation

GHG and energy taxes; GHG emission cap and permits trading; energy taxes and subsidies; micro-financing (for energy access analysis); regulation: generation capacity, production and share targets

Socio economic drivers

Model documentation: Socio-economic drivers - MESSAGE-GLOBIOM

Exogenous drivers

  • Exogenous GDP
  • Total Factor Productivity
  • Labour Productivity
  • Capital Technical progress
  • Energy Technical progress
  • Materials Technical progress
  • GDP per capita
  • Population


  • GDP per capita
  • Income distribution in a region
  • Urbanisation rate
  • Education level
  • Labour participation rate

Macro economy

Model documentation: Macro-economy - MESSAGE-GLOBIOM

Economic sectors

  • Agriculture
  • Industry
  • Energy
  • Transport
  • Services

Note: MACRO represents the economy in a single sector with the production function including capital, labor and energy nests

Cost measures

  • GDP loss
  • Welfare loss
  • Consumption loss
  • Area under MAC
  • Energy system costs


  • Coal
  • Oil
  • Gas
  • Uranium
  • Electricity
  • Bioenergy crops
  • Food crops
  • Capital
  • Emissions permits
  • Non-energy goods

Note: bioenergy is only traded after processing to a secondary fuel (e.g. liquid biofuel)


Model documentation: Energy - MESSAGE-GLOBIOM

Resource use

  • Coal
  • Oil
  • Gas
  • Uranium
  • Biomass

Electricity technologies

  • Coal
  • Gas
  • Oil
  • Nuclear
  • Biomass
  • Wind
  • Solar PV
  • CCS
  • CSP
  • Geothermal
  • Hydropower

Note: CCS can be combined with coal, gas and biomass power generation technologies

Conversion technologies

  • CHP
  • Heat pumps
  • Hydrogen
  • Fuel to gas
  • Fuel to liquid

Grid and infrastructure

  • Electricity
  • Gas
  • Heat
  • CO2
  • H2

Energy technology substitution

  • Discrete technology choices
  • Expansion and decline constraints
  • System integration constraints

Energy service sectors

  • Transportation
  • Industry
  • Residential and commercial

Note: non-energy use (feedstock) of energy carriers is separately represented, but generally reported under industry


Model documentation: Land-use - MESSAGE-GLOBIOM; Non-climate sustainability dimension - MESSAGE-GLOBIOM

Other resources

Model documentation: Non-climate sustainability dimension - MESSAGE-GLOBIOM

Other resources

  • Water
  • Metals
  • Cement

Note: cement is not modeled as a separate commodity, but process emissions from cement production are represented

Emissions and climate

Model documentation: Emissions - MESSAGE-GLOBIOM; Climate - MESSAGE-GLOBIOM

Green house gasses

  • CO2
  • CH4
  • N2O
  • HFCs
  • CFCs
  • SF6


  • NOx
  • SOx
  • BC
  • OC
  • Ozone
  • CO
  • NH3
  • VOC

Climate indicators

  • CO2e concentration (ppm)
  • Climate damages $ or equivalent
  • Radiative Forcing (W/m2 )
  • Temperature change (°C)