Reference card - REMIND

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The reference card is a clearly defined description of model features. The numerous options have been organized into a limited amount of default and model specific (non default) options. In addition some features are described by a short clarifying text.


  • not implemented
  • implemented
  • implemented (not default option)


Name and version


Institution and users

Potsdam Institut für Klimafolgenforschung (PIK), Germany,


REMIND documentation consists of a referencecard and detailed model documentation

Model scope and methods

Model documentation: Model scope and methods - REMIND


REMIND is a global multi-regional model incorporating the economy, the climate system and a detailed representation of the energy sector. REMIND allows for a sophisticated analysis of technology options and policy proposals for climate mitigation. It accounts for economic and energy investments in the model regions, and interregional trade in goods, energy carriers and emissions allowances.


Hybrid Hybrid model that couples an economic growth model with a detailed energy system model and a simple climate model.

Solution method

Inter-temporal optimization that maximizes cumulated discounted global welfare: Ramsey-type growth model with Negishi approach to regional welfare aggregation.


Perfect Foresight

Temporal dimension

Base year:2005, time steps:flexible time steps but the default is 5-year time steps until 2050 and 10-year time steps until 2100; the period from 2100-2150 is calculated to avoid distortions due to end effects, but typically we only use the time span 2005-2100 for model applications, horizon: 2005-2150

Spatial dimension

Number of regions:11

  1. AFR - Sub-Saharan Africa
  2. CHN - China
  3. EUR - European Union
  4. JPN - Japan
  5. IND - India
  6. LAM - Latin America
  7. MEA - Middle East, North Africa, and Central Asia
  8. OAS - other Asian countries (mainly South-East Asia)
  9. RUS - Russia
  10. ROW - rest of the World (Australia, Canada, New Zealand, Norway, South Africa)
  11. USA - United States of America

Policy implementation

Pareto-optimal achievement of policy targets on temperature, radiative forcing, GHG concentration, cumulative carbon budgets, or CO2 emissions over time under full when- and where-flexibility. Implementation of permit allocation rules among regions. Possibility of pre-specified carbon tax pathway. Fossil fuel subsidies and taxes.

Socio economic drivers

Model documentation: Socio-economic drivers - REMIND

Exogenous drivers

  • Exogenous GDP
  • Total Factor Productivity
  • Labour Productivity
  • Capital Technical progress
  • Energy Technical progress
  • Materials Technical progress
  • GDP per capita

Note: Calibration of energy efficiency parameters of the production function. Endogenous learning-by-doing for wind and solar power as well as electric and fuel cell vehicle technologies (global learning curve, internalized spillovers).


  • GDP per capita
  • Income distribution in a region
  • Urbanisation rate
  • Education level
  • Labour participation rate

Macro economy

Model documentation: Macro-economy - REMIND

Economic sectors

  • Agriculture
  • Industry
  • Energy
  • Transport
  • Services

Note: The macro-economic part contains a single sector representation of the entire economy. A generic final good is produced from capital, labor, and different final energy types.

Cost measures

  • Area under MAC
  • Consumption loss
  • Energy system costs
  • GDP loss
  • Welfare loss


  • Coal
  • Oil
  • Gas
  • Uranium
  • Electricity
  • Bioenergy crops
  • Food crops
  • Capital
  • Emissions permits
  • Non-energy goods


Model documentation: Energy - REMIND


Price response through CES production function. No explicit modeling of behavioural change. Baseline energy demands are calibrated in such a way that the energy demand patterns in different regions slowly converge when displayed as per capita energy demand over per capita GDP"

Resource use

  • Coal
  • Oil
  • Gas
  • Uranium
  • Biomass

Electricity technologies

  • Biomass
  • CCS
  • Coal
  • Gas
  • Nuclear
  • Oil
  • Solar PV
  • Wind
  • Geothermal
  • Hydropower
  • Solar CSP

Conversion technologies

  • CHP
  • Heat pumps
  • Hydrogen
  • Fuel to gas
  • Fuel to liquid
  • Heat plants

Grid and infrastructure

  • Electricity
  • Gas
  • Heat
  • CO2
  • H2

Note: Generalized transmission and distribution costs are included, but not modeled on an explicit spatial level. Regionalized additional grid and storage costs for renewable integration are included.

Energy technology substitution

  • Discrete technology choices
  • Expansion and decline constraints
  • System integration constraints

Note: Expansion and decline, and system integration are influenced though cost markups rather than constraints.

Energy service sectors

  • Transportation
  • Industry
  • Residential and commercial

Note: Industry and Residential and Commercial are not treated separately but represented jointly by one Stationary sector (referred to as 'Other Sector').


Model documentation: Land-use - REMIND; Non-climate sustainability dimension - REMIND


Note: Bioenergy supply from the land-use sector is represented by an emulation of the land-use model MAgPIE. The emulator focuses on bioenergy supply costs and agricultural emissions.

Other resources

Model documentation: Non-climate sustainability dimension - REMIND

Other resources

  • Water
  • Metals
  • Cement

Note: Cement production is not explicitly modeled, but emissions from cement production are accounted for.

Emissions and climate

Model documentation: Emissions - REMIND; Climate - REMIND

Green house gasses

  • CO2
  • CH4
  • N2O
  • HFCs
  • CFCs
  • SF6


  • NOx
  • SOx
  • BC
  • OC
  • Ozone
  • CO
  • VOC

Note: Ozone is not modeled as emission, but is an endogenous result of atmospheric chemistry.

Climate indicators

  • CO2e concentration (ppm)
  • Climate damages $ or equivalent
  • Radiative Forcing (W/m2 )
  • Temperature change (°C)

Note: Different emissions are accounted for with different levels of detail depending on the types and sources of emissions (directly by source, via MAC curves, by econometric estimates, exogenous).