Difference between revisions of "GRACE"

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|participation=reference card only
 
|participation=reference card only
 
|processState=in preparation
 
|processState=in preparation
 +
}}
 +
{{ScopeMethodTemplate
 +
|ModelTypeOption=CGE
 +
|GeographicalScopeOption=Global
 +
|Objective=The model aims primarily to estimating how economic indicators defined in the national accounts interact with climate-related factors. for example, climate policies are represented by e.g. quotas or taxes on emissions, to show the economic consequences in world regions under projections.
 +
|SolutionConceptOption=General equilibrium (closed economy)
 +
|SolutionHorizonOption=Recursive dynamic (myopic)
 +
|SolutionMethodOption=Simulation
 +
|SolutionMethod=Recursive dynamic solution method
 +
|BaseYear=2014
 +
|TimeSteps=yearly
 +
|Nr=up to 140.
 +
|SpatialText=Flexible based on the latest GTAP database.
 +
|PoliciesOption=Emission tax; Emission pricing; Cap and trade; Fuel taxes; Fuel subsidies; Feed-in-tariff; Capacity targets; Emission standards; Energy efficiency standards; Agricultural producer subsidies; Agricultural consumer subsidies
 +
|Policies=Adaptation, climate change impact
 +
}}
 +
{{Socio-economicTemplate
 +
|PopulationOption=Yes (exogenous)
 +
|PopulationAgeStructureOption=Yes (exogenous)
 +
|GDPOption=Yes (endogenous)
 +
|IncomeDistributionOption=Yes (endogenous)
 +
|EmploymentRateOption=Yes (endogenous)
 +
|LaborProductivityOption=Yes (exogenous)
 +
|TotalFactorProductivityOption=Yes (exogenous)
 +
|AutonomousEnergyEfficiencyImprovementsOption=Yes (exogenous)
 +
}}
 +
{{Macro-economyTemplate
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|TradeOption=Coal; Oil; Gas; Electricity; Food crops; Capital; Emissions permits; Non-energy goods
 +
|Trade=Agriculture; Consumer Goods Industries; Livestock products; Manufactures; Services; Refined Liquid Fuels
 +
|CostMeasureOption=GDP loss; Welfare loss; Consumption loss
 +
|CostMeasure=Equivalent Variation
 +
|CategorizationByGroupOption=Income
 +
|InstitutionalAndPoliticalFactorsOption=Technological change differentiated by country/region; Behavioural change differentiated by country/region
 +
|CoalRUOption=Yes (supply curve)
 +
|ConventionalOilRUOption=Yes (fixed)
 +
|UnconventionalOilRUOption=Yes (fixed)
 +
|ConventionalGasRUOption=Yes (fixed)
 +
|UnconventionalGasRUOption=Yes (fixed)
 +
|WaterRUOption=Yes (fixed)
 +
|RawMaterialsRUOption=Yes (fixed)
 +
|LandRUOption=Yes (fixed)
 +
|IndustryESOption=Yes (economic)
 +
|EnergyESOption=Yes (physical & economic)
 +
|TransportationESOption=Yes (economic)
 +
|ResidentialAndCommercialESOption=Yes (economic)
 +
|AgricultureESOption=Yes (economic)
 +
|ForestryESOption=Yes (economic)
 +
|EconomicSector=Services (economic)
 +
|EnergyConversionTechnologyTCOption=Exogenous technological change
 +
|EnergyEnd-useTCOption=Exogenous technological change
 +
|AgricultureTCOption=Exogenous technological change
 +
}}
 +
{{EnergyTemplate
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|Behaviour=Producers maximize profit and consumers maximize utility.
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|EnergyTechnologyChoiceOption=Production function
 +
|EnergyTechnologyChoice=Nested CES function
 +
|EnergyTechnologySubstitutabilityOption=Mixed high and low substitutability
 +
|ElectricityTechnologyOption=Coal w/o CCS; Gas w/o CCS; Oil w/o CCS; Nuclear power; Solar power; Wind power; Hydroelectric power
 +
|ElectricityGIOption=Yes (aggregate)
 +
}}
 +
{{Land-useTemplate
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|LandCoverOption=Cropland; Forest
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|AgricultureAndForestryDemandsOption=Agriculture food
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|AgriculturalCommoditiesOption=Wheat; Rice; Other coarse grains; Oilseeds; Sugar crops; Dairy products
 +
}}
 +
{{EmissionClimateTemplate
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|GHGOption=CO2 fossil fuels; CH4 energy; N2O energy; SF6
 +
|PollutantOption=CO energy; NOx energy; SO2 energy; BC energy; NH3 energy
 +
|ClimateChangeImpactsOption=Agriculture; Energy supply; Energy demand; Economic output; Built capital; Inequality
 +
|ClimateChangeImpacts=Extreme events; labor productivity
 +
|Co-LinkagesOption=Energy security: Fossil fuel imports & exports (region); Energy access: Household energy consumption; Air pollution & health: Source-based aerosol emissions; Air pollution & health: Health impacts of air Pollution
 
}}
 
}}
 
{{InstitutionTemplate
 
{{InstitutionTemplate
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|country=Norway
 
|country=Norway
 
}}
 
}}
{{ScopeMethodTemplate}}
 
{{Socio-economicTemplate}}
 
{{Macro-economyTemplate}}
 
{{EnergyTemplate}}
 
{{Land-useTemplate}}
 
{{EmissionClimateTemplate}}
 

Revision as of 09:15, 1 August 2020

The reference card is a clearly defined description of model features. The numerous options have been organized into a limited amount of default and model specific (non default) options. In addition some features are described by a short clarifying text.

Legend:

  • not implemented
  • implemented
  • implemented (not default option)

A page refresh may be needed after modifying data.


About

Name and version

GRACE 2018

Institution

Center for International Climate Research (CICERO), Norway, https://cicero.oslo.no/en/the-grace-model.

Documentation

GRACE documentation consists of a referencecard and detailed model documentation


Model scope and methods

Model documentation: Model_scope_and_methods - GRACE

Model type

  • Integrated assessment model
  • Energy system model
  • CGE
  • CBA-integrated assessment model

Geographical scope

  • Global
  • Regional

Objective

The model aims primarily to estimating how economic indicators defined in the national accounts interact with climate-related factors. for example, climate policies are represented by e.g. quotas or taxes on emissions, to show the economic consequences in world regions under projections.

Solution concept

  • Partial equilibrium (price elastic demand)
  • Partial equilibrium (fixed demand)
  • General equilibrium (closed economy)

Solution horizon

  • Recursive dynamic (myopic)
  • Intertemporal optimization (foresight)

Solution method

  • Simulation
  • Optimization
  • Recursive dynamic solution method


Temporal dimension

Base year:2014, time steps:yearly, horizon:

Spatial dimension

Number of regions:up to 140.

Note: Flexible based on the latest GTAP database.

Time discounting type

  • Discount rate exogenous
  • Discount rate endogenous

Policies

  • Emission tax
  • Emission pricing
  • Cap and trade
  • Fuel taxes
  • Fuel subsidies
  • Feed-in-tariff
  • Portfolio standard
  • Capacity targets
  • Emission standards
  • Energy efficiency standards
  • Agricultural producer subsidies
  • Agricultural consumer subsidies
  • Land protection
  • Pricing carbon stocks
  • Adaptation, climate change impact


Socio-economic drivers

Model documentation: Socio-economic drivers - GRACE

Population

  • Yes (exogenous)
  • Yes (endogenous)

Population age structure

  • Yes (exogenous)
  • Yes (endogenous)

Education level

  • Yes (exogenous)
  • Yes (endogenous)

Urbanization rate

  • Yes (exogenous)
  • Yes (endogenous)

GDP

  • Yes (exogenous)
  • Yes (endogenous)

Income distribution

  • Yes (exogenous)
  • Yes (endogenous)

Employment rate

  • Yes (exogenous)
  • Yes (endogenous)

Labor productivity

  • Yes (exogenous)
  • Yes (endogenous)

Total factor productivity

  • Yes (exogenous)
  • Yes (endogenous)

Autonomous energy efficiency improvements

  • Yes (exogenous)
  • Yes (endogenous)



Macro-economy

Model documentation: Macro-economy - GRACE

Economic sector

Industry

  • Yes (physical)
  • Yes (economic)
  • Yes (physical & economic)

Energy

  • Yes (physical)
  • Yes (economic)
  • Yes (physical & economic)

Transportation

  • Yes (physical)
  • Yes (economic)
  • Yes (physical & economic)

Residential and commercial

  • Yes (physical)
  • Yes (economic)
  • Yes (physical & economic)

Agriculture

  • Yes (physical)
  • Yes (economic)
  • Yes (physical & economic)

Forestry

  • Yes (physical)
  • Yes (economic)
  • Yes (physical & economic)

Other economic sector

  • Services (economic)

Macro-economy

Trade

  • Coal
  • Oil
  • Gas
  • Uranium
  • Electricity
  • Bioenergy crops
  • Food crops
  • Capital
  • Emissions permits
  • Non-energy goods
  • Agriculture
  • Consumer Goods Industries
  • Livestock products
  • Manufactures
  • Services
  • Refined Liquid Fuels

Cost measures

  • GDP loss
  • Welfare loss
  • Consumption loss
  • Area under MAC
  • Energy system cost mark-up
  • Equivalent Variation

Categorization by group

  • Income
  • Urban - rural
  • Technology adoption
  • Age
  • Gender
  • Education level
  • Household size

Institutional and political factors

  • Early retirement of capital allowed
  • Interest rates differentiated by country/region
  • Regional risk factors included
  • Technology costs differentiated by country/region
  • Technological change differentiated by country/region
  • Behavioural change differentiated by country/region
  • Constraints on cross country financial transfers

Resource use

Coal

  • Yes (fixed)
  • Yes (supply curve)
  • Yes (process model)

Conventional Oil

  • Yes (fixed)
  • Yes (supply curve)
  • Yes (process model)

Unconventional Oil

  • Yes (fixed)
  • Yes (supply curve)
  • Yes (process model)

Conventional Gas

  • Yes (fixed)
  • Yes (supply curve)
  • Yes (process model)

Unconventional Gas

  • Yes (fixed)
  • Yes (supply curve)
  • Yes (process model)

Uranium

  • Yes (fixed)
  • Yes (supply curve)
  • Yes (process model)

Bioenergy

  • Yes (fixed)
  • Yes (supply curve)
  • Yes (process model)

Water

  • Yes (fixed)
  • Yes (supply curve)
  • Yes (process model)

Raw Materials

  • Yes (fixed)
  • Yes (supply curve)
  • Yes (process model)

Land

  • Yes (fixed)
  • Yes (supply curve)
  • Yes (process model)


Technological change

Energy conversion technologies

  • No technological change
  • Exogenous technological change
  • Endogenous technological change

Energy End-use

  • No technological change
  • Exogenous technological change
  • Endogenous technological change

Material Use

  • No technological change
  • Exogenous technological change
  • Endogenous technological change

Agriculture (tc)

  • No technological change
  • Exogenous technological change
  • Endogenous technological change



Energy

Model documentation: Energy - GRACE

Behaviour

Producers maximize profit and consumers maximize utility.

Energy technology substitution

Energy technology choice

  • No discrete technology choices
  • Logit choice model
  • Production function
  • Linear choice (lowest cost)
  • Lowest cost with adjustment penalties
  • Nested CES function

Energy technology substitutability

  • Mostly high substitutability
  • Mostly low substitutability
  • Mixed high and low substitutability

Energy technology deployment

  • Expansion and decline constraints
  • System integration constraints

Energy

Electricity technologies

  • Coal w/o CCS
  • Coal w/ CCS
  • Gas w/o CCS
  • Gas w/ CCS
  • Oil w/o CCS
  • Oil w/ CCS
  • Bioenergy w/o CCS
  • Bioenergy w/ CCS
  • Geothermal power
  • Nuclear power
  • Solar power
  • Solar power-central PV
  • Solar power-distributed PV
  • Solar power-CSP
  • Wind power
  • Wind power-onshore
  • Wind power-offshore
  • Hydroelectric power
  • Ocean power

Hydrogen production

  • Coal to hydrogen w/o CCS
  • Coal to hydrogen w/ CCS
  • Natural gas to hydrogen w/o CCS
  • Natural gas to hydrogen w/ CCS
  • Oil to hydrogen w/o CCS
  • Oil to hydrogen w/ CCS
  • Biomass to hydrogen w/o CCS
  • Biomass to hydrogen w/ CCS
  • Nuclear thermochemical hydrogen
  • Solar thermochemical hydrogen
  • Electrolysis

Refined liquids

  • Coal to liquids w/o CCS
  • Coal to liquids w/ CCS
  • Gas to liquids w/o CCS
  • Gas to liquids w/ CCS
  • Bioliquids w/o CCS
  • Bioliquids w/ CCS
  • Oil refining

Refined gases

  • Coal to gas w/o CCS
  • Coal to gas w/ CCS
  • Oil to gas w/o CCS
  • Oil to gas w/ CCS
  • Biomass to gas w/o CCS
  • Biomass to gas w/ CCS

Heat generation

  • Coal heat
  • Natural gas heat
  • Oil heat
  • Biomass heat
  • Geothermal heat
  • Solarthermal heat
  • CHP (coupled heat and power)

Grid Infra Structure

Electricity

  • Yes (aggregate)
  • Yes (spatially explicit)

Gas

  • Yes (aggregate)
  • Yes (spatially explicit)

Heat

  • Yes (aggregate)
  • Yes (spatially explicit)

CO2

  • Yes (aggregate)
  • Yes (spatially explicit)

Hydrogen

  • Yes (aggregate)
  • Yes (spatially explicit)


Energy end-use technologies

Passenger transportation

  • Passenger trains
  • Buses
  • Light Duty Vehicles (LDVs)
  • Electric LDVs
  • Hydrogen LDVs
  • Hybrid LDVs
  • Gasoline LDVs
  • Diesel LDVs
  • Passenger aircrafts

Freight transportation

  • Freight trains
  • Heavy duty vehicles
  • Freight aircrafts
  • Freight ships

Industry

  • Steel production
  • Aluminium production
  • Cement production
  • Petrochemical production
  • Paper production
  • Plastics production
  • Pulp production

Residential and commercial

  • Space heating
  • Space cooling
  • Cooking
  • Refrigeration
  • Washing
  • Lighting


Land-use

Model documentation: Land-use - GRACE

Land cover

  • Cropland
  • Cropland irrigated
  • Cropland food crops
  • Cropland feed crops
  • Cropland energy crops
  • Forest
  • Managed forest
  • Natural forest
  • Pasture
  • Shrubland
  • Built-up area

Agriculture and forestry demands

  • Agriculture food
  • Agriculture food crops
  • Agriculture food livestock
  • Agriculture feed
  • Agriculture feed crops
  • Agriculture feed livestock
  • Agriculture non-food
  • Agriculture non-food crops
  • Agriculture non-food livestock
  • Agriculture bioenergy
  • Agriculture residues
  • Forest industrial roundwood
  • Forest fuelwood
  • Forest residues

Agricultural commodities

  • Wheat
  • Rice
  • Other coarse grains
  • Oilseeds
  • Sugar crops
  • Ruminant meat
  • Non-ruminant meat and eggs
  • Dairy products



Emission, climate and impacts

Model documentation: Emissions - GRACEClimate - GRACENon-climate sustainability dimension - GRACE

Greenhouse gases

  • CO2 fossil fuels
  • CO2 cement
  • CO2 land use
  • CH4 energy
  • CH4 land use
  • CH4 other
  • N2O energy
  • N2O land use
  • N2O other
  • CFCs
  • HFCs
  • SF6
  • PFCs

Pollutants

  • CO energy
  • CO land use
  • CO other
  • NOx energy
  • NOx land use
  • NOx other
  • VOC energy
  • VOC land use
  • VOC other
  • SO2 energy
  • SO2 land use
  • SO2 other
  • BC energy
  • BC land use
  • BC other
  • OC energy
  • OC land use
  • OC other
  • NH3 energy
  • NH3 land use
  • NH3 other

Climate indicators

  • Concentration: CO2
  • Concentration: CH4
  • Concentration: N2O
  • Concentration: Kyoto gases
  • Radiative forcing: CO2
  • Radiative forcing: CH4
  • Radiative forcing: N2O
  • Radiative forcing: F-gases
  • Radiative forcing: Kyoto gases
  • Radiative forcing: aerosols
  • Radiative forcing: land albedo
  • Radiative forcing: AN3A
  • Radiative forcing: total
  • Temperature change
  • Sea level rise
  • Ocean acidification

Carbon dioxide removal

  • Bioenergy with CCS
  • Reforestation
  • Afforestation
  • Soil carbon enhancement
  • Direct air capture
  • Enhanced weathering

Climate change impacts

  • Agriculture
  • Energy supply
  • Energy demand
  • Economic output
  • Built capital
  • Inequality
  • Extreme events
  • labor productivity

Co-Linkages

  • Energy security: Fossil fuel imports & exports (region)
  • Energy access: Household energy consumption
  • Air pollution & health: Source-based aerosol emissions
  • Air pollution & health: Health impacts of air Pollution
  • Food access
  • Water availability
  • Biodiversity