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= Background =
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__NOEDITSECTION__
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= The common Integrated Assessment Model (IAM) documentation =
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== Integrated assessment modeling ==
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Integrated assessment models (IAM) aim to provide policy-relevant insights into global environmental change and sustainable development issues by providing a quantitative description of key processes in the human and earth systems and their interactions. The modelling is integrated, i.e. it uses information from many scientific disciplines and describes both the human and earth system. The term assessment refers to focus on generating useful information for decision-making, even in case of large uncertainties. IAMs, for instance, have been successfully applied in support of climate policy (insights in future greenhouse gas emissions and options for mitigation), in several environmental assessments (e.g. the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment), but IAMs have also published a large amount of scientific papers.
  
Integrated assessment models (IAMs) and energy-economy models have become central tools for informing decision makers and society at large about the choices for long-term global and regional climate mitigation strategies. There is an increasing demand for improved representations of complex energy, climate and land-use system interactions and thorough validation of model behavior in order to increase user confidence in climate policy assessments. The ADVANCE project, sponsored by the European Commission under its 7th Framework Programme, responds to this demand by facilitating the development of a new generation of IAMs. In the past, methodological innovations and improvements in IAMs and their application to policy making were hindered by the difficulties in communicating complexities in modeling and data approaches. The ADVANCE project is trying to make a coordinated effort on improving model transparency, model validation, and data handling.
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== IAM Consortium (IAMC) ==
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The IAMC wiki derives its name from and closely collaborates with the Integrated Assessment Modelling Consortium (IAMC, https://www.iamconsortium.org/). This is an organization of scientific research institutions that are involved in integrated assessment modeling and analysis. The IAMC has members from all over the world, who manage most of the IAM models that currently being used. The IAMC wiki provides a platform for these models' documentation.
  
A central objective of ADVANCE is to provide harmonized documentation that elucidates the structure, assumptions, limitations and input data of all participating IAMs in the ADVANCE project. To make this effort useful beyond the immediate project participants it was decided to start a review process that involves both the broader modeling community as well as stakeholders interested in model results. Beyond the review process, it is planned to invite other modeling teams to also provide their model documentation in the harmonized format developed by the ADVANCE project consortium. So far, documentation for eight models is available and listed in Table 1 below.
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== Documentation ==
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For the purpose of IAMs, a transparent model documentation is essential. IAM teams have documented their models individually, often using web-supported tools. As IAMs, however, are often used together it is also important to have information on the similarities and differences across IAM models. This database provides an overview of the IAM models using a transparent wiki-based approach that has been used consistently across a range of models. This allows for direct comparison of these models. In addition to the harmonized model documentation, also [[Special:RunQuery/Model_Feature_Compare_Form|Model comparison]] allow for direct comparisons.
  
=Objectives=
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== Participating models ==
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The extent of documentation of the participating models may vary. The model documentation consists of:
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* a set of documentation pages ordered in a hierarchical tree and a reference card which summarizes the main features (participation mode = full)
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* a reference card only (participation mode = reference card only)
  
As part of a consultation process with stakeholders involved in the ADVANCE project, it was decided as a first step to develop documentation at two levels of aggregation. It was envisaged that this approach would be particularly helpful for policy makers and other users of model results in understanding key differences between modeling approaches and the representation of different sectors in IAMs. It thus needs to be emphasized that this documentation was not designed to provide information at a level that would enable other researchers to rebuild models and reproduce the results of existing scenarios. However in principle, the current structure of the harmonized model documentation allows for providing extra information as part of appendices describing a model’s mathematical formulation and input data, although no effort has been made to harmonize the extent or format to which such information is provided. Developing a documentation standard that would include model code as well as input datasets is a potential follow-up activity.
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The table below shows all models that are currently "fully published" on the wiki (i.e. with complete and reviewed documentation). Models that are currently "in preparation" or "under review" are not yet shown. Note that the reference card menu in the left sidebar includes more models than in the table below. Although the reference cards are published, models do not always appear in the table, when the model documentation pages are not yet published.
  
The two levels of aggregation for model documentation are described as:  
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{{#ask:[[Category:PublishedModel]]
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|mainlabel=Model
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|? HasInstitutionText=Institution
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|? HasParticipationState=Participation mode
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|? HasProcessState= Process stage
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|format=template
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|template=DisplayModelTemplate
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|intro=<table class="sortable wikitable smwtable"><tr><th>Model</th><th>Institution</th><th>Participation mode</th></tr>
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|outro=</table>
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|link=none
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|sort=HasParticipationState,
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}}
  
* “Reference cards” which are designed to provide a quick overview of the most important model characteristics, in the form of bulleted lists and tables. The structure of these 2-page reference cards is identical for all participating models to facilitate an easy comparison of main features across models. The key aim of the reference cards was for an accessible document to provide insight for decision makers.  
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== Acknowledgement ==
* More comprehensive documentation (some 30 pages) that use a standardized but flexible template, to describe the models’ specificities. This documentation elucidates model structure, mathematical formulations, and to some extent relevant input data sets. In addition, there is the possibility to include appendices with more detailed information on, for example, mathematical formulations and data sets used. The audience for the documentation is energy-land-climate modelers, technical staff in government and firms, and PhD students and postdoctoral researchers new to the field.
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The development of this wiki-based multi-model documentation received input from the FP7 ADVANCE project (grant agreement No. 308329). Maintenance of the wiki has also been partially funded through the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreements No. 821471 (ENGAGE) and No. 821124 (NAVIGATE). The current version benefited from the work of an earlier version developed at University College London. The wiki has also been improved based on comments and suggestions of other modelling teams part of the IAMC. Integrated Assessment Model teams interested in joining this common documentation platform should send a mail to [mailto:IAMC@pbl.nl IAMC@pbl.nl]
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== Other forms of common model evaluation ==
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IAM models also collaborate in other ways in order to enhance the transparency of IAM model output. First of all, various databases, such as the RCP and SSP databases, host the output of several IAMs in a common format ([http://tntcat.iiasa.ac.at/RcpDb/dsd?Action=htmlpage&page=welcome RCP Database (version 2.0)]). Second, IAM models have also produced common evaluation metrics, distilled from common simple model experiments ([[CiteRef::Kriegler2015]]).
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{{#scite:
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|bibtex=
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@article{Kriegler2015,
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title = "Diagnostic indicators for integrated assessment models of climate policy ",
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journal = "Technological Forecasting and Social Change ",
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volume = "90, Part A",
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number = "",
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pages = "45 - 61",
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year = "2015",
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note = "",
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issn = "0040-1625",
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doi = "10.1016/j.techfore.2013.09.020",
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url = "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0040162513002576",
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author = "Elmar Kriegler and Nils Petermann and Volker Krey and Valeria Jana Schwanitz and Gunnar Luderer and Shuichi Ashina and Valentina Bosetti and Jiyong Eom and Alban Kitous and Aurélie Méjean and Leonidas Paroussos and Fuminori Sano and Hal Turton and Charlie Wilson and Detlef P. Van Vuuren",
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keywords = "Climate policy",
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keywords = "Integrated assessment models",
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keywords = "Energy system models",
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keywords = "Model diagnostics",
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keywords = "Climate change economics "
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<nowiki>}</nowiki>
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}}

Latest revision as of 18:08, 18 August 2020

The common Integrated Assessment Model (IAM) documentation

Integrated assessment modeling

Integrated assessment models (IAM) aim to provide policy-relevant insights into global environmental change and sustainable development issues by providing a quantitative description of key processes in the human and earth systems and their interactions. The modelling is integrated, i.e. it uses information from many scientific disciplines and describes both the human and earth system. The term assessment refers to focus on generating useful information for decision-making, even in case of large uncertainties. IAMs, for instance, have been successfully applied in support of climate policy (insights in future greenhouse gas emissions and options for mitigation), in several environmental assessments (e.g. the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment), but IAMs have also published a large amount of scientific papers.

IAM Consortium (IAMC)

The IAMC wiki derives its name from and closely collaborates with the Integrated Assessment Modelling Consortium (IAMC, https://www.iamconsortium.org/). This is an organization of scientific research institutions that are involved in integrated assessment modeling and analysis. The IAMC has members from all over the world, who manage most of the IAM models that currently being used. The IAMC wiki provides a platform for these models' documentation.

Documentation

For the purpose of IAMs, a transparent model documentation is essential. IAM teams have documented their models individually, often using web-supported tools. As IAMs, however, are often used together it is also important to have information on the similarities and differences across IAM models. This database provides an overview of the IAM models using a transparent wiki-based approach that has been used consistently across a range of models. This allows for direct comparison of these models. In addition to the harmonized model documentation, also Model comparison allow for direct comparisons.

Participating models

The extent of documentation of the participating models may vary. The model documentation consists of:

  • a set of documentation pages ordered in a hierarchical tree and a reference card which summarizes the main features (participation mode = full)
  • a reference card only (participation mode = reference card only)

The table below shows all models that are currently "fully published" on the wiki (i.e. with complete and reviewed documentation). Models that are currently "in preparation" or "under review" are not yet shown. Note that the reference card menu in the left sidebar includes more models than in the table below. Although the reference cards are published, models do not always appear in the table, when the model documentation pages are not yet published.

ModelInstitutionParticipation mode
AIM-Hub National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), Japan, https://www.nies.go.jp/index-e.html. full
BLUES COPPE/UFRJ (Cenergia), Brazil, http://www.cenergialab.coppe.ufrj.br/. full
COFFEE-TEA COPPE/UFRJ (Cenergia), Brazil, http://www.cenergialab.coppe.ufrj.br/. full
DNE21+ Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth (RITE), Japan, http://www.rite.or.jp/en/. full
GEM-E3 Institute of Communication And Computer Systems (ICCS), Greece, https://www.iccs.gr/en/. full
IFs Frederick S. Pardee Center for International Futures, University of Denver (Pardee Center), Colorado, USA, https://pardee.du.edu/. full
IMACLIM Centre international de recherche sur l'environnement et le développement (CIRED), France, http://www.centre-cired.fr., Societe de Mathematiques Appliquees et de Sciences Humaines (SMASH), France, http://www.smash.fr. full
IMAGE PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL), Netherlands, https://www.pbl.nl/en., Utrecht University (UU), Netherlands, https://www.uu.nl/en. full
MESSAGE-GLOBIOM International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Austria, http://data.ene.iiasa.ac.at. full
POLES JRC - Joint Research Centre - European Commission (EC-JRC), Belgium, http://ec.europa.eu/jrc/en/. full
PROMETHEUS E3Modelling (E3M), Greece, https://e3modelling.com/modelling-tools. full
REMIND Potsdam Institut für Klimafolgenforschung (PIK), Germany, https://www.pik-potsdam.de. full
TIAM-UCL University College London (UCL), UK, https://www.ucl.ac.uk. full
WITCH European Institute on Economics and the Environment (RFF-CMCC EIEE), Italy, http://www.eiee.org. full
AIM-Enduse Japan Kyoto University (KU), Japan, https://www.kyoto-u.ac.jp/en/., National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), Japan, . reference card only
AIM-Hub Viet Nam Vietnam National University Ho Chi Minh City (HCMIU), Viet Nam, https://ev.hcmiu.edu.vn/en/home/. reference card only
BET Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), Japan, https://criepi.denken.or.jp/en/. reference card only
C3IAM Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research, Beijing Institute of Technology (CEEP-BIT), China, http://ceep.bit.edu.cn/english/. reference card only
China TIMES Tsinghua University (Tsinghua University), China, https://www.tsinghua.edu.cn/en/. reference card only
IMACLIM-NLU Centre international de recherche sur l'environnement et le développement (CIRED), France, http://www.centre-cired.fr., Societe de Mathematiques Appliquees et de Sciences Humaines (SMASH), France, http://www.smash.fr. reference card only
IPETS National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), USA, https://ncar.ucar.edu/. reference card only

Acknowledgement

The development of this wiki-based multi-model documentation received input from the FP7 ADVANCE project (grant agreement No. 308329). Maintenance of the wiki has also been partially funded through the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreements No. 821471 (ENGAGE) and No. 821124 (NAVIGATE). The current version benefited from the work of an earlier version developed at University College London. The wiki has also been improved based on comments and suggestions of other modelling teams part of the IAMC. Integrated Assessment Model teams interested in joining this common documentation platform should send a mail to IAMC@pbl.nl

Other forms of common model evaluation

IAM models also collaborate in other ways in order to enhance the transparency of IAM model output. First of all, various databases, such as the RCP and SSP databases, host the output of several IAMs in a common format (RCP Database (version 2.0)). Second, IAM models have also produced common evaluation metrics, distilled from common simple model experiments (1).

References

  1. ^  Elmar Kriegler, Nils Petermann, Volker Krey, Valeria Jana Schwanitz, Gunnar Luderer, Shuichi Ashina, Valentina Bosetti, Jiyong Eom, Alban Kitous, Aurélie Méjean, Leonidas Paroussos, Fuminori Sano, Hal Turton, Charlie Wilson, Detlef Van P Vuuren (2015). Diagnostic indicators for integrated assessment models of climate policy. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 90, Part A (), 45 - 61. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2013.09.020