Gaseous fuels - IMAGE

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Model Documentation - IMAGE
Corresponding documentation
Model information
Institution PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL), Netherlands,, Utrecht University (UU), Netherlands,
Solution concept The IMAGE framework can best be described as a geographically explicit assessment, integrated assessment simulation model, focusing a detailed representation of relevant processes with respect to human use of energy, land and water in relation to relevant environmental processes.
Solution method Recursive dynamic solution method
Anticipation Simulation modelling framework, without foresight. However, a simplified version of the energy/climate part of the model (called FAIR) can be run prior to running the framework to obtain data for climate policy simulations.

The description of fossil fuel production is described under Energy resource endowments. On this page we focus on hydrogen production.


The structure of the hydrogen generation submodule is similar to that for electric power generation 1 but with following differences:

  • There are only eleven supply options for hydrogen production from coal, oil, natural gas and bioenergy, with and without carbon capture and storage (8 plants); hydrogen production from electrolysis, direct hydrogen production from solar thermal processes; and small methane reform plants.
  • No description of preferences for different power plants is taken into account in the operational strategy. The load factor for each option equals the total production divided by the capacity for each region.
  • Intermittence does not play an important role because hydrogen can be stored to some degree. Thus, there are no equations simulating system integration.
  • Hydrogen can be traded. A trade model is added, similar to those for fossil fuels.


  1. ^  |  Bas Van Ruijven, Detlef P Van Vuuren, Bert De Vries (2007). The potential role of hydrogen in energy systems with and without climate policy. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 32 (12), 1655-1672.