Model scope and methods - IMACLIM

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Model Documentation - IMACLIM
Corresponding documentation
Model information
Institution Centre international de recherche sur l'environnement et le développement (CIRED), France,, Societe de Mathematiques Appliquees et de Sciences Humaines (SMASH), France,
Solution concept Hybrid: general equilibrium with technology explicit modules. Recursive dynamics: each year the equilibrium is solved (system of non-linear equations), in between two years parameters to the equilibrium evolve according to specified functions.
Solution method Imaclim-R is implemented in Scilab, and uses the fonction fsolve from a shared C++ library to solve the static equilibrium system of non-linear equations.
Anticipation Recursive dynamics: each year the equilibrium is solved (system of non-linear equations), in between two years parameters to the equilibrium evolve according to specified functions.

The Imaclim-R model (Sassi et al., 2010 1; Waisman et al., 20122), is a multi-region and multi-sector model of the world economy. It combines a Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) framework with bottom-up sectoral modules in a hybrid and recursive dynamic architecture. Furthermore, it describes growth patterns in second best worlds with market imperfections, partial uses of production factors and imperfect expectations.

Table 1 shows a list of references involving IMACLIM-R categorized as follows:

  1. References describing the structure and results obtained with the Imaclim-R Global model
  2. References to models comparison exercises in which Imaclim-R Global model has participated

The references in Table 1 are further divided by technology, behaviour etc. focus.

Table 1: Articles describing IMACLIM and MIP's in which it has been involved
Description of Imaclim-R structure and results Models comparison (including Imaclim-R)
Technologies Bibas and Méjean (2014)1 (bioenergy) Kim et al. (2014)2 (nuclear)

Koelbl et al. (2014)3 (CCS)

Krey et al. (2014)4

Kriegler et al. (2014)5

Luderer et al. (2014)6 (renewables)

Rose et al. (2014)7 (bioenergy)

Tavoni et al. (2012)8

Energy efficiency Bibas et al. (2015)9 Sugiyama et al. (2014)10
Fossil fuels Rozenberg et al. (2010)11

Waisman et al. (2012)12

Waisman et al. (2013a)13

Bauer et al. (2015)14

MCCollum et al. (2014)15

Transport Waisman et al. (2013b)16
Macroeconomy Crassous et al. (2006)17 (endogenous structural change)

Guivarch et al. (2011)18 (labor markets)

Evaluation of model Guivarch et al. (2009)19 (backcasting) Kriegler et al. (2015b)20 (diagnostics)
Scenarios Guivarch and Mathy (2012)21

Hamdi-Cherif et al. (2011)22

Mathy and Guivarch (2010)23

Rozenberg et al. (2014)24

Waisman et al. (2014)25

Blanford et al. (2014)26

Kriegler et al. (2015)27

Luderer et al. (2012a)28

Luderer et al. (2012b)29

Riahi et al. (2015)30


  1. ^  |  Olivier Sassi, Renaud Crassous, Jean Charles Hourcade, Vincent Gitz, Henri Waisman, Celine Guivarch (2010). IMACLIM-R: a modelling framework to simulate sustainable development pathways. International Journal of Global Environmental Issues, 10 (1/2), 5.
  2. ^  |  Henri Waisman, Céline Guivarch, Fabio Grazi, Jean Charles Hourcade (2012). The Imaclim-R model: infrastructures, technical inertia and the costs of low carbon futures under imperfect foresight. Climatic Change, 114 (1), 101-120.
  3. ^  |  Ruben Bibas, Aurélie Méjean (2014). Potential and limitations of bioenergy for low carbon transitions. Climatic change, 123 (3-4), 731--761.
  4. ^  |  Son H Kim, Kenichi Wada, Atsushi Kurosawa, Matthew Roberts (2014). Nuclear energy response in the EMF27 study. Climatic change, 123 (3-4), 443--460.
  5. ^  |  Barbara Sophia Koelbl, Machteld A van den Broek, André PC Faaij, Detlef P van Vuuren (2014). Uncertainty in Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) deployment projections: a cross-model comparison exercise. Climatic change, 123 (3-4), 461--476.
  6. ^  |  Volker Krey, Gunnar Luderer, Leon Clarke, Elmar Kriegler (2014). Getting from here to there--energy technology transformation pathways in the EMF27 scenarios. Climatic change, 123 (3-4), 369--382.
  7. ^  |  Elmar Kriegler, John P Weyant, Geoffrey J Blanford, Volker Krey, Leon Clarke, Jae Edmonds, Allen Fawcett, Gunnar Luderer, Keywan Riahi, Richard Richels, others (2014). The role of technology for achieving climate policy objectives: overview of the EMF 27 study on global technology and climate policy strategies. Climatic Change, 123 (3-4), 353-367.
  8. ^  |  Gunnar Luderer, Volker Krey, Katherine Calvin, James Merrick, Silvana Mima, Robert Pietzcker, Jasper Van Vliet, Kenichi Wada (2014). The role of renewable energy in climate stabilization: results from the EMF27 scenarios. Climatic change, 123 (3-4), 427--441.
  9. ^  |  Steven K Rose, Elmar Kriegler, Ruben Bibas, Katherine Calvin, Alexander Popp, Detlef P van Vuuren, John Weyant (2014). Bioenergy in energy transformation and climate management. Climatic Change, 123 (3-4), 477-493.
  10. ^  |  Massimo Tavoni, Enrica De Cian, Gunnar Luderer, Jan Christoph Steckel, Henri Waisman (2012). The value of technology and of its evolution towards a low carbon economy. Climatic Change, 114 (1), 39--57.
  11. ^  |  Ruben Bibas, Aurélie Méjean, Meriem Hamdi-Cherif (2015). Energy efficiency policies and the timing of action: An assessment of climate mitigation costs. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 90 (), 137--152.
  12. ^  |  Masahiro Sugiyama, Osamu Akashi, Kenichi Wada, Amit Kanudia, Jun Li, John Weyant (2014). Energy efficiency potentials for global climate change mitigation. Climatic change, 123 (3-4), 397--411.
  13. ^  |  Julie Rozenberg, St{\'e}phane Hallegatte, Adrien Vogt-Schilb, Olivier Sassi, C{\'e}line Guivarch, Henri Waisman, Jean-Charles Hourcade (2010). Climate policies as a hedge against the uncertainty on future oil supply. Climatic change, 101 (3), 663--668.
  14. ^  |  Henri Waisman, Julie Rozenberg, Olivier Sassi, Jean-Charles Hourcade (2012). Peak oil profiles through the lens of a general equilibrium assessment. Energy Policy, 48 (), 744--753.
  15. ^  |  Henri Waisman, Julie Rozenberg, Jean Charles Hourcade (2013). Monetary compensations in climate policy through the lens of a general equilibrium assessment: The case of oil-exporting countries. Energy Policy, 63 (), 951-961.
  16. ^  | | |  Nico Bauer, Valentina Bosetti, Meriem Hamdi-Cherif, Alban Kitous, David McCollum, Aurélie Méjean, Shilpa Rao, Hal Turton, Leonidas Paroussos, Shuichi Ashina, others (2015). CO 2 emission mitigation and fossil fuel markets: dynamic and international aspects of climate policies. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 90 (), 243-256.
  17. ^  |  David McCollum, Nico Bauer, Katherine Calvin, Alban Kitous, Keywan Riahi (2014). Fossil resource and energy security dynamics in conventional and carbon-constrained worlds. Climatic change, 123 (3-4), 413--426.
  18. ^  |  Henri-David Waisman, Céline Guivarch, Franck Lecocq (2013). The transportation sector and low-carbon growth pathways: modelling urban, infrastructure, and spatial determinants of mobility. Climate Policy, 13 (sup01), 106-129.
  19. ^  |  Renaud Crassous, Jean-Charles Hourcade, Olivier Sassi (2006). Endogenous structural change and climate targets modeling experiments with Imaclim-R. The Energy Journal, (), 259--276.
  20. ^  |  Céline Guivarch, Renaud Crassous, Olivier Sassi, Stéphane Hallegatte (2011). The costs of climate policies in a second-best world with labour market imperfections. Climate Policy, 11 (1), 768-788.
  21. ^  |  Céline Guivarch, Stéphane Hallegatte, Renaud Crassous (2009). The resilience of the Indian economy to rising oil prices as a validation test for a global energy--environment--economy CGE model. Energy Policy, 37 (11), 4259-4266.
  22. ^  |  Elmar Kriegler, Nils Petermann, Volker Krey, Valeria Jana Schwanitz, Gunnar Luderer, Shuichi Ashina, Valentina Bosetti, Jiyong Eom, Alban Kitous, Aurélie Méjean, others (2015). Diagnostic indicators for integrated assessment models of climate policy. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 90 (), 45-61.
  23. ^  |  Céline Guivarch, Sandrine Mathy (2012). Energy-GDP decoupling in a second best world—a case study on India. Climatic change, 113 (2), 339-356.
  24. ^  |  Meriem Hamdi-Cherif, Céline Guivarch, Philippe Quirion (2011). Sectoral targets for developing countries: combining ‘common but differentiated re-sponsibilities’ with ‘meaningful participation’. Climate Policy, 11 (1), 731-751.
  25. ^  |  Sandrine Mathy, C{\'e}line Guivarch (2010). Climate policies in a second-best world—A case study on India. Energy Policy, 38 (3), 1519--1528.
  26. ^  |  Julie Rozenberg, Céline Guivarch, Robert Lempert, Stéphane Hallegatte (2014). Building SSPs for climate policy analysis: a scenario elicitation methodology to map the space of possible future challenges to mitigation and adaptation. Climatic change, 122 (3), 509-522.
  27. ^  |  Henri-David Waisman, Christophe Cassen, Meriem Hamdi-Cherif, Jean-Charles Hourcade (2014). Sustainability, globalization, and the energy sector europe in a global perspective. The Journal of Environment & Development, 23 (1), 101--132.
  28. ^  |  Geoffrey J Blanford, Elmar Kriegler, Massimo Tavoni (2014). Harmonization vs. fragmentation: overview of climate policy scenarios in EMF27. Climatic change, 123 (3-4), 383-396.
  29. ^  |  Elmar Kriegler, Keywan Riahi, Nico Bauer, Valeria Jana Schwanitz, Nils Petermann, Valentina Bosetti, Adriana Marcucci, Sander Otto, Leonidas Paroussos, Shilpa Rao, others (2015). Making or breaking climate targets: The AMPERE study on staged accession scenarios for climate policy. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 90 (), 24-44.
  30. ^  |  Gunnar Luderer, Enrica DeCian, Jean-Charles Hourcade, Marian Leimbach, Henri Waisman, Ottmar Edenhofer (2012). On the regional distribution of mitigation costs in a global cap-and-trade regime. Climatic Change, 114 (1), 59-78.
  31. ^  |  Gunnar Luderer, Valentina Bosetti, Michael Jakob, Marian Leimbach, Jan C Steckel, Henri Waisman, Ottmar Edenhofer (2012). The economics of decarbonizing the energy system—results and insights from the RECIPE model intercomparison. Climatic Change, 114 (1), 9-37.
  32. ^  |  Keywan Riahi, Elmar Kriegler, Nils Johnson, Christoph Bertram, Michel Den Elzen, Jiyong Eom, Michiel Schaeffer, Jae Edmonds, Morna Isaac, Volker Krey, others (2015). Locked into Copenhagen pledges—implications of short-term emission targets for the cost and feasibility of long-term climate goals. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 90 (), 8-23.