Other end-use - GCAM

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Model Documentation - GCAM

Corresponding documentation
Previous versions
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Model information
Model link
Institution Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Joint Global Change Research Institute (PNNL, JGCRI), USA, https://www.pnnl.gov/projects/jgcri.
Solution concept General equilibrium (closed economy)GCAM solves all energy, water, and land markets simultaneously
Solution method Recursive dynamic solution method
Anticipation GCAM is a dynamic recursive model, meaning that decision-makers do not know the future when making a decision today. After it solves each period, the model then uses the resulting state of the world, including the consequences of decisions made in that period - such as resource depletion, capital stock retirements and installations, and changes to the landscape - and then moves to the next time step and performs the same exercise. For long-lived investments, decision-makers may account for future profit streams, but those estimates would be based on current prices. For some parts of the model, economic agents use prior experience to form expectations based on multi-period experiences.

Energy for Water

System boundaries

The specific system boundaries are explained in Kyle et al. (2016),[1] and are set so as to include all energy for activities whose primary output is water, and to exclude from this domain production technologies that use both energy and water as inputs to produce some other good. The system boundaries of “energy-for-water” (EFW) consist of the following activities:

  • Water abstraction
  • Water treatment
  • Water distribution
  • Wastewater treatment

Within the following sectors:

  • Desalinated water supply
  • Irrigated crop production
  • Industrial manufacturing
  • Municipal water supply

Modeling Energy-for-Water

The modeling approach is documented in Kyle et al. (2021),[2] and consists of the following steps:

  • Estimation of water flow volumes of EFW processes and sectors
  • Multiplication of water flow volumes by assumed energy intensities
  • Adjustment of historical energy consumption in the commercial and industrial sectors to accommodate explicitly represented EFW

See the official documentation section on energy for water here, with additional details found here.

  1. Kyle, P., Johnson, N., Davies, E., Bijl, D.L., Mouratiadou, I., Bevione, M., Drouet, L., Fujimori, S., Liu, Y., and Hejazi, M. 2016. Setting the system boundaries of “energy for water” for integrated modeling. *Environmental Science & Technology 50(17), 8930-8931.
  2. Kyle, P., Hejazi, M., Kim, S., Patel, P., Graham, N., and Liu, Y. 2021. Assessing the future of global energy-for-water. Environmental Research Letters 16(2), 024031.