Other end-use - WITCH
|Institution||European Institute on Economics and the Environment (RFF-CMCC EIEE), Italy, http://www.eiee.org.|
|Solution concept||General equilibrium (closed economy)|
The energy carriers that are used for usages other than power generation are traditional biomass, biofuels, coal, gas and oil. In addition, a backstop technology, representing potential breakthrough options that could substitute oil in the non electric sector, pending sufficient R&D investments, is also considered. Oil and gas together account for more than 70% of energy consumption in the non electric sector. Instead, the use of coal is limited to some developing regions and it is assumed to decrease exogenously. Traditional biomass as well is used mostly in non-OECD regions and its share declines over time, from 11% in 2005 to 7% in 2030, as rural population in developing countries progressively gains access to standard forms of energy. In WITCH we distinguish between ethanol, which we label as ?traditional biofuels?, and ?advanced biofuels?, which are obtained from biomass transformation. Biofuels consumption is currently low in all regions of the world and the overall penetration remains modest over time given the conservative assumptions on their large scale deployment.