Temporal dimension - IMAGE
|Institution||Utrecht University (UU), Netherlands, https://www.uu.nl/en., PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL), Netherlands, https://www.pbl.nl/en.|
|Solution concept||Partial equilibrium (price elastic demand)|
|Anticipation||Simulation modelling framework, without foresight. However, a simplified version of the energy/climate part of the model (called FAIR) can be run prior to running the framework to obtain data for climate policy simulations.|
The Human system and the Earth system each run at annual or five-year time steps focusing on long-term trends to capture inertia aspects of global environmental issues. In some IMAGE model components, shorter time steps are also used, for example, in water, crop and vegetation modelling, and in electricity supply. The model is run up to 2050 or 2100 depending on the issues under consideration. For instance, a longer time horizon is often used for climate change studies. IMAGE also runs over the historical period 1971-2005 in order to test model dynamics against key historical trends.
The model does not use foresight. However, a simplified version of the energy/climate part of the model (called FAIR) can be run separately for cost-optimisation over time. The outcomes of this model can be fed back into the framework as whole to determine detailed outcomes for climate policy simulations.