Energy - DNE21+
|Institution||Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth (RITE), Japan, http://www.rite.or.jp/en/.|
DNE21+ includes a detailed description of energy carriers and conversion technologies.
It includes eight types of primary energy sources; coal, oil (conventional and unconventional), natural gas (conventional and unconventional), hydro power and geothermal, nuclear, wind power, photovoltaics and biomass). Interregional transportation of energy (coal, oil natural gas, synthetic oil, ethanol, electrical power and hydrogen) and CO2 are incorporated in the model. As technological options, various types of energy-conversion technologies are explicitly modeled, such as electricity generation, oil refinery, natural gas liquefaction, coal gasification, and water electrolysis, methanol synthesis. The end-use sector are disaggregated into four types of secondary energy carriers: 1) solid fuel, 2) liquid fuel, 3) gaseous fuel, and 4) electricity. The demands for these energy carriers are endogenously calculated in a top-down fashion using long-term price elasticities in other cases than the reference case.
Figure 6 Outline of energy flows in DNE21+