Gaseous fuels - TIAM-UCL

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Model Documentation - TIAM-UCL

Corresponding documentation
Previous versions
Model information
Model link https://www.ucl.ac.uk/energy-models/models/tiam-ucl
Institution University College London (UCL), UK, https://www.ucl.ac.uk.
Solution concept Partial equilibrium (price elastic demand)
Solution method Linear optimisation
Anticipation Perfect Foresight

(Stochastic and myopic runs are also possible)

Alternative fuels

Table 3.2.4 contains technologies for the production of alternative fuels. The technologies are split into two groups: 1) Ethanol and methanol production, either from coal or biomass and 2) Fischer-Tropsch processes, producing oil products from coal, gas and biomass.

Table 3.2.4: Alternative fuel technologies

Model Technology Description
Ethanol from biomass
Cellulose ethanol plant
Methanol from Bioliquids
Methanol from coal
Methanol from coal with CO2 capture
Methanol from natural gas
Methanol from natural gas with CCS
FT fuels from natural gas
FT fuels from natural gas with CCS
FT fuels from coal
FT fuels from coal with CCS
FT fuels from coal low biomass and coal co production
FT fuels low biomass and coal co production with CCS
FT fuels high biomass and coal co production
FT fuels high biomass and coal co production with CCS
FT fuels solid biomass
FT fuels solid biomass with CCS

Hydrogen

New technologies include those used for hydrogen production and demand technologies in the transport sector that consume hydrogen. Production technologies are generic in nature and are defined by the type of fuel used - coal, natural gas, electricity and biomass.

There are also technologies, available from 2020, that allow for mixing of hydrogen into the natural gas supply to different sectors. This mix is fixed at 15% hydrogen / 85% natural gas. A single distribution technology allows for hydrogen transport, with costs developed on the basis of unit of energy transported (using VAROM).

Table 3.2.5: Hydrogen production and supply technologies

Model Technology Description
Hydrogen from Brown coal
Hydrogen from Hard coal
Electrolysis
Hydrogen from NGA
Hydrogen from NGA - Decentralized
Hydrogen from biomass gasification
Mix of Gas and Hydrogen - For COM
Mix of Gas and Hydrogen - For IND
Mix of Gas and Hydrogen - For RES
Distribution of hydrogen

Hydrogen technologies for cars and light duty trucks are included in the model, with different types based on the use of combustion, hybrid or fuel cell technology. The associated Trans file puts different hurdle rates on these technologies, assuming 15% for developed regions and 30% for developing regions such as Africa. The Trans file is also used to adjust efficiencies and costs across all regions, for both transport and production technologies.

Sequestration

Sequestration technologies and storage options mainly relate to the electricity sector, and are described in the relevant sector chapter of this report.

There are two technologies that allow for the capture of CO2 emissions (process-based) in the upstream sector. The costs of such 'dummy' capture technologies are modelled simply, using variable costs of 0.001 (equivalent to $1/tCO2).

Another set of important technologies for integrated climate modelling are those that relate to emissions and removals by the forestry sector. Labelled SINKAF*. The levels of emissions and removals and the associated costs are controlled by the Trans file and are based on assumptions used in the EMF analysis. Finally, atmospheric CO2 may be partly absorbed and fixed by biological sinks such as forests; the model has six options for forestation and avoided deforestation, as described in Sathaye et al. (2005) and adopted by the Energy Modelling Forum, EMF-21 and 22 groups.

Land-use CO2

The SubRes file LUCO2 defines a single technology that emits fixed levels of emissions by region each period. It is net CO2 emissions from deforestation and forest degradation. It does not include emissions from land use. The levels are calculated in the associated Trans file. The global emission level in 2005 is estimated at 2.7 GtCO2 per year, which decreases to 0.1 GtCO2 by 2100.Allocation by region is based on distribution of agricultural managed land. It is assumed that LULUCF emissions for UK is zero and therefore, WEU region's LULUCF emission has not been changed. There are scenarios in the model with reduced emissions from deforestation based on the EMF 21 study scenarios.

Grid and infrastructure

No representation of grids in TIAM-UCL except Electricity generation can be centralised or decentralised (CEN or DCN). A generic cost and efficiency loss associated with distribution are included for Gas pipelines and electricity.

The range of CO2 storage technologies in the model are listed below.

Table 3.2.6: Types of storage technologies

Model Technology Description
Removal by Enhanced Coalbed Meth recov <1000 m
Removal by Enhanced Coalbed Meth recov >1000 m
Removal by Depl gas fields (offshore)
Removal by Depl gas fields (onshore)
Removal by Storage in the deep ocean
Removal by Depl oil fields (offshore)
Removal by Depl oil fields (onshore)
Removal by Deep saline aquifers
Removal by Enhanced Oil Recovery
Mineralization for CO2 storage