A number centralized district heating technologies based on fossil and renewable energy sources are represented in MESSAGE (see Table 1). Similar to coupled heat and power (CHP) technologies that are described in the Electricity section of MESSAGE-GLOBIOM, these heating plants feed low temperature heat into the district heating system that is then used in the end-use sectors. In addition, there are (decentralized) heat generation options in Industrial sector of MESSAGE-GLOBIOM and Residential and commercial sectors of MESSAGE-GLOBIOM.
Table 1: List of centralized heat generation technologies represented in MESSAGE by energy source
||coal district heating plant
||light fuel oil district heating plant
||gas district heating plant
||solid biomass district heating plant
||geothermal district heating plant