Other end-use - COFFEE-TEA
|Institution||COPPE/UFRJ (Cenergia), Brazil, http://www.cenergialab.coppe.ufrj.br/.|
|Solution concept||General equilibrium (closed economy)|
|Solution method||The COFFEE model is solved through Linear Programming (LP). The TEA model is formulated as a mixed complementary problem (MCP) and is solved through Mathematical Programming System for General Equilibrium -- MPSGE within GAMS using the PATH solver.|
Just like the tertiary sector, the residue sector provides a service to society and does not involve the production of an end product. However, since the environmental service provided by collecting and treating residues is not properly valued by society, the residues sector is less significant in the value added to the economy than other activities of the services sector.
Generally speaking, the residue sector is not a major source of GHG emissions. However, there are two reasons to address this sector in detail. First of all, there are a few abatement options, which can also provide further co-benefits to society, such as reduction of environmental damages. Other advantage is that some options of treatment can also provide alternative source of energy (waste-to-energy options).
The other reason is that the GHGs typically emitted by this sector are methane and nitrous oxide, which, even if emitted in low quantities, have a higher impact on the greenhouse gas effect. Hence, changes in consumption behaviour and the development of collecting and treatment options within all regions may prove to be an important source of GHG emissions.
There are a few sources of emissions within the residue sector, such as municipal solid waste (MSW), liquid effluents and agricultural residues. As for liquid effluents, there is very limited literature for assessing this topic worldwide it was not addressed in the current model.