Industrial sector - C3IAM

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Model Documentation - C3IAM

Corresponding documentation
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Model information
Model link
Institution Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research, Beijing Institute of Technology (CEEP-BIT), China,
Solution concept General equilibrium (closed economy)
Solution method Optimization

C3IAM/NET-industrial sectors include steel, cement, nonferrous metals, chemical, paper and other industries. First, on the basis of considering economic development, industrial upgrading, acceleration of urbanization, intelligentization, electrification and other social and economic changes, the demand for products of each industrial sector is forecasted separately. Secondly, by incorporating factors such as technological progress, raw material substitution, fuel substitution, process adjustment, etc., the production process of each industrial sector is simulated to obtain the corresponding energy flow and material flow under the optimal production cost.

The path optimization part in industrial sectors is based on the technical perspective, considering more than 200 energy-saving technologies (such as non-blast furnace steelmaking, hydrogen steelmaking, new dry kiln, waste heat power generation technology, biological conversion technology, electrolytic water hydrogen production, etc.). By setting a series of technology, energy and emission parameters such as technology investment cost, energy conversion efficiency, energy emission factor, etc., the industrial sectors are modeled. With the goal of minimizing the total annual cost, the model chooses the optimal technological development path for the industrial sector of each region or the country under multiple constraints such as backward production capacity phase-out, technology substitution, fuel conversion, and technological progress. The model of the industrial sectors reflects the characteristics of the industrial production process with a wide variety of products, production processes, and diverse energy-saving technologies. The biggest advantage lies in the bottom-up view of actual production, making the simulation process and results practical. The results show the future potential of electric arc furnaces in the iron and steel industry [1], the emission reduction potential of raw material substitution in the cement industry [2], and the emission reduction path of multiple products in the chemical industry [3], which can provide the government and enterprises with detailed and feasible technical investment guidance.


  1. Runying An, Biying Yu, Ru Li, Yi-Ming Wei, 2018. Potential of energy savings and CO2 emission reduction in China’s iron and steel industry. Applied energy 226, 862-880.
  2. Cheng-Yao Zhang, Biying Yu, Jing-Ming Chen, Yi-Ming Wei, 2021. Green transition pathways for cement industry in China. Resources, Conservation and Recycling 166, 105355.
  3. Jing-Ming Chen, Biying Yu, Yi-Ming Wei, 2018. Energy technology roadmap for ethylene industry in China. Applied Energy 224, 160-174.