Land-use change - C3IAM

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Model Documentation - C3IAM

Corresponding documentation
Previous versions
Model information
Model link
Institution Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research, Beijing Institute of Technology (CEEP-BIT), China,
Solution concept General equilibrium (closed economy)
Solution method Optimization

For the projection of land use change, C3IAM/EcoLa works on a time step of 5 years in a dynamic recursive mode. Future demand for regional agricultural and forest products (e.g., rice, wheat, cereals, vegetables, oil seeds, sugar, fibers, other crops, livestock and forestry) is exogenous, it relies on income per capita, and population projection of different regions based on GTAP database. Moreover, technical change for agricultural sector depends on different biophysical and socioeconomic factors [1][2]. Changes of agricultural productivity and crop productivity among 12 regions are different, what is more, SSP1-3 have different product specific rates. Trade in food and forest products across the various regions is not considered in the study.


  1. F Ewert, MDA Rounsevell, I Reginster, MJ Metzger, R Leemans, 2005. Future scenarios of European agricultural land use: I. Estimating changes in crop productivity. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 107, 101-116.
  2. Stefan Wirsenius, Christian Azar, Göran Berndes, 2010. How much land is needed for global food production under scenarios of dietary changes and livestock productivity increases in 2030? Agricultural systems 103, 621-638.