Agriculture - C3IAM

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Model Documentation - C3IAM

Corresponding documentation
Previous versions
Model information
Model link
Institution Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research, Beijing Institute of Technology (CEEP-BIT), China,
Solution concept General equilibrium (closed economy)
Solution method Optimization

Primary agricultural products considered in the model are listed in the following Table 1. The livestock activities are connected with the feed requirement per animal product. Following Alcamo’s work [1], the model currently considers ruminants for livestock activities such as cattle and sheep, but non-ruminants are not included. The total forage demand is calculated by multiplying livestock unit with average forage consumption per livestock unit during one year.

For the reference land use area distribution used in the base year 2011, croplands are produced by eight crop categories which contain 149 crop types (see Table 1). According to Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) definition, grass is from permanent pastures and can be used to graze [2].

Table 1 Product types in C3IAM/EcoLa model.
Crop types Concrete products
Rice rice
Wheat wheat
CerealCrop barley, buckwheat, canary seed, cereals, maize, millet, mixed grain, quinoa, rye, sorghum, triticale
VegCrop almonds, apples, arecanuts, avocados, bambara beans, bananas, beans, berries, blueberries, brazil nuts, broad beans, horse beans, cabbages and other brassicas, carrots and turnips, cashew nuts, cashewapple, cassava, cauliflowers and broccoli, cherries, chestnuts, chick peas, chicory roots, chillies and peppers, citrus fruit, coconuts, cow peas, cranberries, cucumbers and gherkins, currants, dates, eggplants, figs, tropical fruit, garlic, gooseberries, grapefruit, grapes, hazelnuts, kiwi fruit, leeks, leguminous vegetables, lemons and limes, lentils, lettuce and chicory, lupins, mangoes, mushrooms and truffles, nuts, oats, okra, olives, onions, oranges, other melons, papayas, peaches and nectarines, pears, persimmons, pigeon peas, pineapples, pistachios, plantains, plums and sloes, pome fruit, potatoes, pulses, pumpkins, quinces, raspberries, roots and tubers, spinach, stone fruit, strawberries, string beans, sweet potatoes, tangerines, mandarins, taro, tomatoes, walnuts, watermelons, yams, yautia
OilCrop castor oil seed, groundnuts, hempseed, jojoba seeds, kapokseed, karate nuts, linseed, melonseed, mustard seed, oilpalm, oilseeds, poppy seed, rapeseed, safflower seed, sesame, soybeans, sunflower, tallowtree Seeds, tung nuts
SugarCrop sugar beet, sugar beet
FiberCrop agave, fibrenes, hemp tow waste, jute, manila fibre, other bastfibres, ramie, sisal
OtherCrop anise, apricots, artichokes, asparagus, carobs, cinnamon, cloves, cocoa, coffee, fonio, ginger, hops, kola nuts, maté, nutmeg, pepper, peppermint, pyrethrum, spices, tea, tobacco, vanilla, vetches
Livestock cattle, goats, horses, sheep


  1. Rüdiger Schaldach, Joseph Alcamo, Jennifer Koch, Christina Kölking, David M Lapola, Jan Schüngel, Jörg A Priess, 2011. An integrated approach to modelling land-use change on continental and global scales. Environmental Modelling & Software 26, 1041-1051.
  2. François Souty, Thierry Brunelle, Patrice Dumas, Bruno Dorin, Philippe Ciais, Renaud Crassous, Chistoph Müller, Alberte Bondeau, 2012. The Nexus Land-Use model version 1.0, an approach articulating biophysical potentials and economic dynamics to model competition for land-use. Geoscientific Model Development 5, 1297-1322.