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The PROMETHEUS model is used to simulate the implications of various energy and climate policy instruments, including:

  • GHG policies
    • Regional emission reduction objective: Implementation of carbon pricing schemes
    • Cumulated CO2 buget: Regional differentiation of emission constraints and carbon pricing to reduce emissions within budget (iterative calculation)
  • Energy pricing policies
    • Carbon pricing (either carbon taxation in ETS sectors or carbon values non-ETS sectors)
    • other environmental taxes (e.g. introduction of taxes on fossil fuel production and/or consumption or environmental tax on non-conventional fuels production)
    • Subsidies to renewable energy, electric cars and energy efficiency
    • fossil fuel subsidies (including the possibility to phase out)
  • Support policies for specific technologies
    • Electricity generation feed-in tariffs (especially for renewable energy technologies)
    • Acceleration of deployment of low-emission vehicles (e.g. through direct subsidies or low interest loans)
    • Low interest loans or subsidies to capital cost to purchase energy appliances and equipment or to perform energy retrofitting
  • Efficiency standards
    • fuel efficiency standards in vehicles and in buildings
    • penetration of low-energy consuming buildings
  • Openness to investment, especially in low-carbon technologies
    • Discount rates in low-carbon technology investment
    • Lower discount rates (subsidies to capital) for low-carbon and energy efficient technologies

The PROMETHEUS model calculates several indicators that can be used to inform energy and climate policy impact assessment at regional or global level. These include:

Energy Demand

  • Energy intensity of GDP (primary and final energy)
  • Energy intensity per unit of value added in industry
  • Energy intensity of households’ income
  • Energy intensity per inhabitant
  • Energy intensity per passenger car
  • Electricity consumption per capita in residential sector
  • Electricity generated per capita
  • Transport fuels per capita
  • Performance against overall energy efficiency targets (primary energy and final energy)
  • Number of passenger cars per capita


  • Overall share of RES in primary energy demand
  • Share of RES in total power generation
  • Share of bio-fuels in fuels used in the transport sector

Power sector

  • Share of renewable energy in power generation
  • Share of electricity produced by CCS
  • Share of intermittent RES in power generation
  • Share of nuclear in power generation
  • Power generation per capita
  • Average load factor of power generation
  • Average rate of use of power plant capacities (by type)

Security of Energy Supply

  • Overall energy dependence indicator in each region
  • Evolution of import fossil fuel prices for the EU
  • Developments of global fossil fuel markets for oil, natural gas and coal  
  • Share of unconventional oil (extra heavy oil and tar sands) in global oil supply
  • Share of Middle East production in global oil production and reserves
  • Development of unconventional gas resources (shale, tight and CBM)  


  • Carbon intensity of GDP
  • Carbon intensity of households
  • Carbon intensity of the transport sector
  • Carbon emissions per capita
  • Carbon intensity of power generation
  • Share of emissions captured in power generation
  • Carbon intensity per unit of final energy in industry/transport/buildings
  • Carbon intensity per unit of primary energy

Costs and Prices

  • Prices for internationally traded fossil fuels (coal, oil and natural gas)
  • Electricity prices for industries and households (for all regions)
  • Unit costs of electricity production
  • Investments in the power generation sector and in energy efficiency
  • Consumer expenditures on final energy
  • Carbon prices  
Alert-warning.png Note: The documentation of PROMETHEUS is 'under review' and is not yet 'published'!

Model Documentation - PROMETHEUS

Corresponding documentation
Previous versions
No previous version available
Model information
Model link https://e3modelling.com/modelling-tools/prometheus/
Institution E3Modelling (E3M), Greece, https://e3modelling.com/modelling-tools.
Solution concept Partial equilibrium (price elastic demand)
Solution method Simulation
Anticipation Energy system simulation.Foresight is included only is some sub-modules (i.e. electricity generation)