Emissions - POLES

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Model Documentation - POLES

Corresponding documentation
Previous versions
Model information
Model link
Institution JRC - Joint Research Centre - European Commission (EC-JRC), Belgium, http://ec.europa.eu/jrc/en/poles.
Solution concept Partial equilibrium (price elastic demand)
Solution method SimulationRecursive simulation
Anticipation Myopic

All Kyoto defined greenhouse gases are included POLES: CO2, CH4, N2O, SF6, HFCs, PFCs. Note that HFCs and PFCs are respectively gathered into one category, the corresponding global warming potentials (GWP) being the average ratio between historical inventories expressed in CO2e and in grams, the ratio are then kept constant.

The model directly covers all emissions from the energy sector and the industry sector. Other emissions (agriculture, land use) come from a soft linkage with the GLOBIOM/G4M model.

GHG policies affect these emissions: energy CO2 is derived from the changes in the energy sector induced by the policy, other emissions are affected by specific marginal abatement cost curves (MACCs).

Information sources include: UNFCCC GHG inventories1, IPCC Assessment Reports, EDGAR database2, IEA3, EIA, FAO4.

The model has been used extensively to study climate mitigation scenarios5678. See the Policy page for more examples.


  1. ^  | |  Greenhouse Gas Inventory Data, Flexible Queries. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. 2015. [1]
  2. ^  | |  Kitous A., Keramidas K. (2014). Analysis of scenarios integrating the INDCs. [1]. Seville, Spain: European Commission - Joint Research Centre.
  3. ^  | |  IEA online energy statistics. International Energy Agency. 2015. [1]
  4. ^  | |  Emissions Land Use database FAOSTAT. Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations. 2015. [1]
  5. ^  | |  Russ H, Wiesenthal T, Van Regemorter D, Ciscar Martinez J (2005). Global Climate Policy Scenarios for 2030 and beyond - Analysis of Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Pathway Scenarios with the POLES and GEM-E3 Models. [1]. Seville, Spain: European Commission - Joint Research Centre.
  6. ^  | |  Russ H, Ciscar Martinez J, Saveyn B, Soria Ramirez A, Szabo L, Van Regemorter D (2005). Economic Assessment of Post-2012 Global Climate Policies - Analysis of Gas Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Scenarios with the POLES and GEM-E3 models. [1]. Seville, Spain: European Commission - Joint Research Centre.
  7. ^  | |  Toon Vandyck, Kimon Keramidas, Bert Saveyn, Alban Kitous, Zoi Vrontisi (2016). A global stocktake of the Paris pledges: Implications for energy systems and economy. Global Environmental Change, 41 (), 46-63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2016.08.006
  8. ^  | |  Elmar Kriegler, Keywan Riahi, Nico Bauer, Valeria Jana Schwanitz, Nils Petermann, Valentina Bosetti, Adriana Marcucci, Sander Otto, Leonidas Paroussos, Shilpa Rao, Tabaré Arroyo Currás, Shuichi Ashina, Johannes Bollen, Jiyong Eom, Meriem Hamdi-Cherif, Thomas Longden, Alban Kitous, Aurélie Méjean, Fuminori Sano, Michiel Schaeffer, Kenichi Wada, Pantelis Capros, Detlef P. van Vuuren, Ottmar Edenhofer (2015). Making or breaking climate targets: The AMPERE study on staged accession scenarios for climate policy. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 90 (), 24-44. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2013.09.021