Liquid fuels - POLES

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Model Documentation - POLES
Corresponding documentation
Model information
Institution JRC - Joint Research Centre - European Commission (EC-JRC), Belgium, http://ec.europa.eu/jrc/en/poles.
Solution concept Partial equilibrium (price elastic demand)
Solution method SimulationRecursive simulation
Anticipation Myopic


Oil products

Crude oil production is transformed into oil products (one energy carrier represented in the model) with a refineries efficiency.


Biomass to Liquids

The POLES model differentiates 4 biomass-to-liquids production technologies, each described by cost, efficiency estimates and use of feedstock type:

  • 1st generation bioethanol and biodiesel;
  • 2nd generation bioethanol and biodiesel.

The use of the different liquid biofuels is restricted by blending constraints (with oil products) in the various sectors.

Information sources include: IEA, OECD, DEFRA, DFT, JEC


Coal to Liquids

The Coal-to-liquid production (Fischer Tropsch) is described by one generic technology (cost and efficiency) to which a CCS module can be added.

The development of CTL depends on the distance between production cost and the oil price.

Information sources include IEA, EIA.


Gas to Liquids

Similarly to CTL production, the gas-to-liquids production is described by one generic technology (cost and efficiency) to which a CCS module can be added.

The development of GTL depends on the distance between production cost and the oil price.

Information sources include IEA, EIA.