Non-biomass renewables - POLES
|Institution||JRC - Joint Research Centre - European Commission (EC-JRC), Belgium, http://ec.europa.eu/jrc/en/.|
|Solution concept||Partial equilibrium (price elastic demand)|
|Solution method||SimulationRecursive simulation|
Hydro resources are defined for all countries / regions. They constraint the development of hydro power (which depends on identified projects and average power production costs).
Sources of information include: WEC1, IEA2.
Solar resources are defined as the maximum amount of solar energy that can harvested for the energy system. Solar energy in urban areas depends on the rooftop surface, solar energy in non-urban areas depends on land-use and distance to consuming centres. The resource is then used in the energy system depending on the economic conditions, considering network constraints. The model uses mostly inside calculation considering solar irradiation, land use, population density and urban areas.
Source: Pietzcker et al3
The model distinguishes between total resource and technical potential that is considered as harvestable, depending on distance to consuming centres and depths (for offshore resource). Total resources come from NREL estimates, technical potential can be internally calculated or also derived from NREL estimates. This potential is then used in the energy system depending on the economic conditions, considering network constraints.
The system integration of renewables in the model has been tested in several studies56.
- ^ | World Energy Resources, 2013 Survey. World Energy Council. 2013. 
- ^ | IEA online energy statistics. International Energy Agency. 2015. 
- ^ | Robert Carl Pietzcker, Daniel Stetter, Susanne Manger, Gunnar Luderer (2014). Using the sun to decarbonize the power sector: The economic potential of photovoltaics and concentrating solar power. Applied Energy, 135 (), 704-720. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2014.08.011
- ^ | Global CFDDA-based Onshore and Offshore Wind Potential Supply Curves by Country, Class, and Depth (quantities in GW and PWh). National Renewable Energy Laboratory. 2013. 
- ^ | Robert C. Pietzcker, Falko Ueckerdt, Samuel Carrara, Harmen Sytze de Boer, Jacques Després, Shinichiro Fujimori, Nils Johnson, Alban Kitous, Yvonne Scholz, Patrick Sullivan, Gunnar Luderer (2016). System integration of wind and solar power in integrated assessment models: A cross-model evaluation of new approaches. Energy Economics, (). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eneco.2016.11.018
- ^ | Jacques Després, Silvana Mima, Alban Kitous, Patrick Criqui, Nouredine Hadjsaid, Isabelle Noirot (2016). Storage as a flexibility option in power systems with high shares of variable renewable energy sources: a POLES-based analysis. Energy Economics, (). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eneco.2016.03.006