Policy - POLES

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Model Documentation - POLES

Corresponding documentation
Previous versions
Model information
Model link
Institution JRC - Joint Research Centre - European Commission (EC-JRC), Belgium, http://ec.europa.eu/jrc/en/.
Solution concept Partial equilibrium (price elastic demand)
Solution method SimulationRecursive simulation
Anticipation Myopic

The POLES model is used to simulate:

  • GHG policies
    • Country/region objective: Implementation of carbon (or CO2eq) pricing (iterative calibration)
    • Cumulated GHG/CO2 buget: Regional differentiation of constraint and carbon pricing permitting to reduce emissions within budget (iterative calibration)
    • Carbon leakage (limited)
  • Energy taxation policies
    • GHG-related pricing policies (carbon pricing)
    • other environmental taxes (e.g. introduction of environmental damage tax on non-conventional fuels production)
    • fossil fuel subsidies (possibility to phase out)
    • introduction of renewable fuels subsidy
  • Support policies for specific technologies
    • Electricity generation feed-in tariffs
    • Low interest loans or subsidies to capital cost in purchase of energy consuming equipment
    • Acceleration of the penetration emerging vehicle technologies
    • Modal shifts in passenger transport
  • Efficiency standards
    • fuel efficiency standards in vehicles
    • penetration of low-energy consuming buildings
  • Openness to investment
    • Reactivity to prices on exploration and production in oil and gas producing regions
    • Discount rates in investment
    • National preference in the sourcing of fossil fuels or national resource management in domestic fossil fuels production

Policies included are updated regularly to reflect the current state of affairs at country and sector level. See for example the list of policies in the GECO 2016 scenarios.

The model has been used extensively to study climate mitigation scenarios:

  • It has specifically been used to inform UNFCCC international negotiations, looking at global and regional climate mitigation scenarios and assessing the economic costs (and, in tandem with other models, the economic impacts) of the transition to a low-carbon economy: with relation to the Kyoto Protocol and beyondEC-JRC 2007russ2007po, in the negotiations around the COPs in Copenhagen and DohaEC-JRC 2005EC-JRC 2009riahi2015lo and more recently on the Paris AgreementEC-JRC 2015vandyck2016a.