Energy demand - POLES

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Model Documentation - POLES

Corresponding documentation
Previous versions
Model information
Model link
Institution JRC - Joint Research Centre - European Commission (EC-JRC), Belgium,
Solution concept Partial equilibrium (price elastic demand)
Solution method SimulationRecursive simulation
Anticipation Myopic

Energy demand from the various end-uses (industry, buildings, transport, agriculture) is aggregated into totals that have to be supplied by the energy transformation module.

The following energy vectors are modelled:

  • oil
  • gas
  • coal
  • biofuels (solid: traditional, modern; transport: liquid biofuels: transport)
  • electricity
  • marketed heat
  • hydrogen

Total demand of energy depends on the relevant activity variable (surfaces, mobility needs, value added) and sectoral energy prices. Competition across fuels takes place based on costs for the user (also considering the lifetime of existing equipment); it is calibrated on historical data on prices and market shares. Additional trends are used to model non-cost drivers (autonomous technological trends or non-price policies such as efficiency standards).