Grid, pipelines and other infrastructure - POLES
|Institution||JRC - Joint Research Centre - European Commission (EC-JRC), Belgium, http://ec.europa.eu/jrc/en/poles.|
|Solution concept||Partial equilibrium (price elastic demand)|
|Solution method||SimulationRecursive simulation|
Own use of the energy sector
Fossil fuel extraction
POLES describes explicitely the direct energy use, and the corresponding emissions, of the following fuels: - tar sands - extra heavy oil - oil shale
All other energy use related to fossil fuel extraction is captured in one single factor, expressed by fuel as a % of the energy production and kepy constant over time at the last historical value.
The energy use in the refining sector is captured through a coefficient, expressed as a % of the demand for oil product, kept constant over time at the last historical vakue
Other own-energy uses are captured through a coefficient, expressed by fuel as a % of primary energy demand, kept constant over time at the last historical value.
Losses in Transport & Distribution
Grids and pipelines are not modelled explicitly. Pipelines are captured through transport costs as compared to other trade routes.
Losses in T&D are expressed by fuel as a % of final energy use, and by default kept constant at the last historical value.
They can be adjusted depending on the scenario (for instance to capture a decrease in electricity losses, ..).